The United Nations defines transitional justice as “the full range of processes and mechanisms associated with a society’s attempt to come to terms with a legacy of large-scale past abuses, in order to ensure accountability, serve justice and achieve reconciliation.”
MIDDLE EAST-ASIA PROJECT (MAP) ESSAYS ON TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE:
Despite Elections, Transitional Justice Still Elusive in Tunisia
The leaders of Tunisia’s two main political actors – the secular Nidaa Tounes Party and the Islamist Ennahda Party – are prioritizing economic development and security issues in their platforms. While these matters are of great importance to building a stable and democratic Tunisia, it is remarkable that discussions about human rights and transitional justice have been almost entirely absent in the campaigns of these and other parties and candidates.
The Tunisian transitional justice has not drawn upon the Islamic tradition and would almost certainly not have been able to do so in a way that contributes to the ultimate success of transitional justice there. Why? This article will answer that question by focusing upon the circumstances of Tunisian transitional justice and by comparing them to the transitional justice process in Aceh, Indonesia, where Islamic practices were to some degree drawn upon. These case studies demonstrate that local cultural or religious practices must have widespread legitimacy and popular acceptance if they are to effectively contribute to transitional justice.
Since the “Arab Spring,” international actors have considered Tunisia an exemplar of democratic transition in the Arab world. But this optimism is increasingly being replaced by fear and frustration, especially within Tunisia itself. Transitional justice—dealing with the crimes committed by previous regimes—is one of the subjects of debate.
This paper discusses attempts at reconciliation that followed Taiwan’s transition to democracy after four decades (1947–1987) of political repression in which new settlers from the Chinese mainland, known as waishengren (provincial outsiders), suppressed a native population, known as benshengren (provincial natives), that had formerly experienced 50 years (1895–1945) of Japanese colonial rule. As a case study, I draw on field research undertaken between 2004 and 2006 in the village of Luku. I ask to what extent Taiwan has redressed the defining massacre that occurred on February 28, 1947, known as the 2-28 Incident, and the repression that followed, known as the White Terror (1949–1986). To what extent can Taiwan be sure that state terror will not recur? Further, what lessons are there for the “Arab Spring?”
Between 1998 and 2003 the Melanesian archipelago state of the Solomon Islands was marked by a violent civil conflict precipitated by a combination of ethnic tensions, economic insecurities, and perceived injustices. Known colloquially as “The Tensions,” the low-intensity conflict left around 200 people dead and more than 11,000 displaced from their homes. In addition, more than 5,700 human rights violations were committed during the conflict, of which at least 1,413 involved torture. Although its transition has not been from authoritarian rule to democracy, the Solomon Islands’ attempts to address the human rights violations that took place during this conflict hold a number of important lessons for the transitional states of the Middle East.
Yemen’s Contentious Transitional Justice and Fragile Peace
Yemen was not immune to the wave of popular uprisings that swept some countries of the Middle East and North Africa region. However, because of the Yemeni state’s fragility, concurrent zones of conflict, and a power struggle that divided the core military and tribal elites, the international community was afraid that the youth uprising that started in January 2011 might lead to a collapse of the state. Given the consequences of such a collapse on the security of the Gulf states, oil production, and the international war on terror, the Gulf Cooperation Council brokered a deal in November 2011—the Gulf initiative—which laid the foundation for a transitional government. The main aim of the initiative was to secure a peace deal that halted Yemen’s slide into chaos. Peace was sought through the brokering of an inclusive National Dialogue Conference (NDC), but peace did not entail changing the regime or its pattern of politics. While transitional justice has been a part of this process of peaceful reconciliation, it raises questions about the sustainability of this peace and provides a showcase of the precarious state of Yemeni affairs.
The situation in Egypt has been very complicated, with the democratic process and path toward transitional justice shifting under four different ruling systems—Mubarak, SCAF, the Muslim Brotherhood, and the interim ruling authorities—over a short period of time. All four systems committed abuses against the people, leaving victims and cases to be investigated. The combination of sharp divisions within society, disagreements about transitional justice itself, and delayed government responses to people’s demands has made the situation particularly charged.
In May 2013, Libya’s General National Congress (GNC) overwhelmingly passed the Political Isolation Law (PIL). The PIL’s enactment represented a far-reaching attempt to prevent members of the regime of Muammar Qaddafi from holding public office during the country’s transition. But the decision also appeared to fit a precarious pattern of post-conflict accountability in Libya, which has been characterized by acts of vengeance and one-sided justice aimed at anyone associated with the defeated regime. The passage of the law also reflects the current state of political instability in Libya wherein decisions are politically motivated and often forced at the barrel of the gun rather than agreed upon through public consultation and democratic decision-making.
“Through wisdom a house is built, and by understanding it is established.” Pope Tawadros II, the Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church, tweeted this verse of scripture in December 2012. He wrote it as one of a series of daily reflections on the book of Proverbs. This phrase, however, also provides an entry point into the Coptic Orthodox Church and its place in Egyptian civil society. Egypt is in the midst of rebuilding its government and society following an 18-day revolution in 2011, 18 months of military rule that ended with the election of Mohamed Morsi, and the removal of President Morsi one year later by the Egyptian military in July 2013. Egyptian Christians now have the opportunity and challenge to renegotiate their place in Egyptian civil society during this time of unrest and transition. What wisdom, understanding, and vision will Christian clergy and lay leaders put forth in order to co-labor with their neighbors, the state, and other stakeholders to build a new house for Egyptian society? This new vision must be rooted in Copts’ historical experience and include the possibility for new models of engagement and representation.
Beth K. Dougherty
The de-Ba`thification process in Iraq has fallen profoundly short as a transitional justice mechanism over the past decade. Poorly conceived, badly implemented, and controlled by hard-liners, the process has been so highly politicized that it has eroded the rule of law and intensified the sectarian tensions that are at the heart of the violence haunting Iraq.
"Going Grassroots:" Transitional Justice in Egypt
Since the inception of its transitional justice and accountability program in November 2012, the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (EIPR) has faced a number of challenges related to its work. Of these, one of the most arduous has been operating in a context of ongoing political and social upheaval. The period since November 2012 can generally be divided into three distinct phases, each marking a change in EIPR’s organizational and conceptual approaches to transitional justice. Though EIPR sees its work in Egypt less in phases and more as a long and complicated struggle against injustice and impunity that will likely continue for the foreseeable future, the three phases are helpful for documenting its approach to transitional justice since 2012.
Transitional justice in Indonesia has largely failed. While exact definitions vary, transitional justice here refers loosely to the righting of past wrongs by holding perpetrators accountable for their actions. In Indonesia, neither Suharto nor any of the high-ranking officials of the New Order era have ever been put on trial or held accountable for human rights abuses during 32 years of authoritarian rule. In fact, no Indonesian has been successfully convicted for past abuses despite numerous attempts to do so.
Cambodia’s traumatic history has often been used as a tool for power among rival politicians in the country, particularly when elections are approaching. This article, however, argues that due to the passage of time, such tactics in relation to the Khmer Rouge have started to lose ground, in particular owing to demographic redistribution, social media outreach, and changes in perception.
The Challenges of Transitional Justice in Cambodia
An internationalized transitional justice process has been underway in Cambodia for some years and appears to be nearing a conclusion. This retributive justice process—formally known as the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) and informally called the Khmer Rouge Tribunal (KRT)—was designed to achieve accountability for gross human rights violations between 1975 and 1979, when Cambodia was ruled by a political movement known as the Khmer Rouge. The ECCC has generated useful lessons for other countries that may be considering a similar exercise. This essay will review a few of those lessons, including (1) political obstacles to ensuring accountability for human rights violations; (2) challenges and limitations of the tribunal model; (3) costs and benefits of amnesties; (4) potential alternative justice mechanisms such as truth commissions, reparations, and apologies; and (5) the consequences of justice too soon and justice delayed.
Transitional Justice and the Politics of Lustration in Tunisia
Christopher K. Lamont
No transitional justice dilemma is more contested in Tunisia than that of lustration and vetting. While trials of former ruling elites, either in absentia or in the courtroom, grab international headlines, the question of how to deal with the tens of thousands of former Ben Ali regime functionaries who were complicit in past abuses yet are not likely to be brought to trial has proven even more politically charged. To be sure, the question over the fate of these potential targets of lustration and vetting continues to contribute to Tunisia’s prolonged post-revolutionary political crisis, as draft laws on lustration and ad hoc leaks from state archives solidify cleavages among Tunisia’s diverse array of transitional political actors.
Truth Commissions in South Korea: Lessons Learned
Hun Joon Kim
South Korea has launched various transitional justice measures since democratic transition in 1987, with truth commissions being employed most frequently. With at least ten truth commissions established to date, South Korea has been a leader in such initiatives in the Asia Pacific region. This paper analyzes two of South Korea’s most prominent truth commissions―the Jeju Commission and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC)―in an effort to answer why some truth commissions succeed while others do not.
Toward Victim-centered Transitional Justice: Nepal and Timor-Leste
The first decade of the twenty-first century has been characterized by the emergence of a new politics of human rights that has become the defining agenda of much national and international politics. This universalist discourse of rights has gained unprecedented leverage in global debate, propelled by narratives that rarely pause to question the evidence or ideology that underlies it. This is nowhere more true than in the practice of human rights after conflict or political violence, in which transitional justice has become a dominant approach to addressing legacies of violations, backed by an industry of practitioners and donors.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE:
The Government and Social Development Resource Center’s (GSDRC) Resources on Transitional Justice contains discussions and a wealth of information on the following topics:
- Where is a good place to start?
- Designing transitional justice strategies
- Impact of transitional justice
- Poverty reduction, socioeconomic development and transitional justice
- Truth commissions and trials
- Reparations, memorialisation, vetting and amnesty
- Non-state justice systems
- Additional information resources
- Report of the Secretary-General: The rule of law and transitional justice in conflict and post-conflict societies (S/2004/616)
- OHCHR analytical study on human rights and transitional justice
- OHCHR analytical study on human rights and transitional justice: Inventory of human rights and transitional justice aspects of recent peace agreements
- OHCHR study on human rights and transitional justice activities undertaken by the human rights components of the United Nations system
- Guidance Note of the Secretary-General: United Nations Approach to Transitional Justice
- The International Journal of Transitional Justice
- The International Journal of Transitional Justice [electronic resource]
- LSN Transitional Justice e-Journal
TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE CENTERS AND WEB-BASED RESOURCES:
- International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ)
- International IDEA
- Institute for Historical Justice and Reconciliation
- Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
- Peace Building Initiative
- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- Transitional Justice Database Project
- Transitional Justice: Reconstructing Self and Society
- Transformative Justice in Egypt and Tunisia
- United Nations Rule of Law
- United States Institute of Peace/Transitional Justice
- INCORE Guide to Internet Sources on Truth and Reconciliation
- Justice in Perspective (Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation)
- Truth Commissions Project
- Oxford Transitional Justice Research
- Restorative Justice Online
GENERAL WORKS ON TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE:
Books and Reports
Bass, Gary Jonathan. 2002. Stay the Hand of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Czarnota, Adam, Martin Krygier and Wojciech Sadurski (Eds.) 2005. Rethinking the Rule of Law after Communism. Budapest, NY, Central European: University Press.
De Brito, Alexandra Barahona, Carmen Gonzaléz Enríquez, and Paloma Aquilar (Eds.) 2001. The Politics of Memory: Transitional Justice in Democratizing Societies. New York: Oxford University Press.
Elster, Jon. 2004. Closing the Books: Transitional Justice in Historical Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Elster, Jon. 2004. “Moral Dilemmas of Transitional Justice”, in Practical Conflicts: New Philosophical Essays, ed. by Peter Baumann & Monika Betzler. Pp. 279-294.
Govier, Trudy. 2002. Forgiveness and Revenge. London: Routledge.
Griswold, Charles L. 2007. Forgiveness: A Philosophical Exploration. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hayner, Priscilla. 2002. Unspeakable Truths: Facing the Challenges of Truth Commissions. London: Routledge.
Herz, John H. (Ed.) 1982. From Dictatorship to Democracy: Coping with the Legacies of Authoritarianism and Totalitarianism. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Ignatieff, Michael. 1997. The Warrior's Honor: Ethnic War and the Modern Conscience. New York: Owl Books.
Kritz, Neil (Ed.) 1995. Transitional Justice: How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes. 3 vols. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Kritz, Neil. 2002. “Where We Are and How We Got Here: An Overview of Developments in the Search for Justice and Reconciliation” in The Legacy of Abuse ed. by Alice H. Henkin. New York: the Aspen Institute.
May, Larry. 2007. War Crimes and Just War. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Meredith, Martin. 1999. Coming to Terms: South Africa's Search for Truth. New York: Public Affairs.
Minow, Martha. 1998. Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History after Genocide and Mass Violence. Boston: Beacon Press.
Murphy, Jeffrie G. 2003. Getting Even: Forgiveness and its Limits. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nino, Carlos Santiago. 1996. “Punishment as a Response to Human Rights Violation: A Global Perspective”, in Radical Evil on Trial. New Haven: Yale University Press. Pp. 3-41.
Philpott, Daniel. 2006. The Politics of Past Evil: Religion, Reconciliation, and the Dilemmas of Transitional Justice. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
Ratner, Steven R. and Jason S. Abrams. 1997. Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Law: Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rothberg, Robert I. and Dennis Thompson (Eds.) 2000. Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Teitel, Ruti. 2001. Transitional Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Roht-Arriaza, Naomi, and Javier Mariezcurrena (Eds.) 2006. Transitional Justice in the Twenty-First Century: Beyond Truth versus Justice. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Akhavan, Payam, “Are International Criminal Tribunals a Disincentive to Peace?: Reconciling Judicial Romanticism with Political Realism”, Human Rights Quarterly, 31:3 (2009), 624-654.
Arthur, Paige, ‘How “Transitions” Reshaped Human Rights: A Conceptual History of Transitional Justice’, Human Rights Quarterly, 31:2 (2009), 321-367.
Bell, Christine, “Transitional Justice, Interdisciplinarity and the State of the ‘Field’ or ‘Non-Field’”, International Journal of Transitional Justice, 3:1 (2009), 5-27.
Fletcher, Laurel E., Harvey M. Weinstein and Jamie Rowen, “Context, Timing, and the Dynamics of Transitional Justice: A Historical Perspective”, Human Rights Quarterly, 31:1 (2009), 163-220.
Eisikovits, Nir, ‘Transitional Justice’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2009).
Glasius, Marlies, “What is Global Justice and who decides? Civil Society and Victim Responses to the International Criminal Court’s First Investigations”, Human Rights Quarterly, 31:2 (2009), 496-520.
Gready, Paul, “Reconceptualising Transitional Justice: Embedded and Distanced Justice”, Conflict, Security and Development, 5:1 (2005), 3-21.
Kritz, Neil, “Accountability for International Crimes and Serious Violations of Human Rights: Coming to Terms with Atrocities: A Review of Accountability Mechanisms for Mass Violations of Human Rights”, Law and Contemporary Problems, 59:4 (1996), 127-152.
Leebaw, Bronwyn Anne, “The Irreconcilable Goals of Transitional Justice”, Human Rights Quarterly, 30:1 (2008), 95-118.
McEvoy, Kieran, “Letting Go of Legalism: Developing a ‘Thicker’ Version of Transitional Justice”, Journal of Law and Society, 34:4 (2007), 411-440.
Mendez, Juan, “Accountability for Past Abuses”, Human Rights Quarterly, 19:2 (1997), 255-282.
Orentlicher, Diane F., “Settling Accounts Revisited: Reconciling Global Norms and Local Agency”, International Journal of Transitional Justice, 1:1 (2007), 10-22.
Orentlicher, Diane F., “Settling Accounts: The Duty to Prosecute Human Rights Violations of a Prior Regime”, Yale Law Journal, 100:8 (1991), 2537-2615.
Peskin, Victor, “Beyond Victor's Justice? The Challenge of Prosecuting the Winners at the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda”, Journal of Human Rights, 4:2 (2005), 213-231.
Robins, Simon and Ram Kumar Bhandari. 2012. “From victims to actors: Mobilising victims to drive transitional justice process”, NEFAD: Kathmandu.
Teitel, Ruti, “Transitional Jurisprudence: The Role of Law in Political Transformation”, Yale Law Review, 106:7 (1997), 2009-2080.
Teitel, Ruti, “Transitional Justice Genealogy”, Harvard Human Rights Journal, 16 (2003), 69-94.
Teitel, Ruti, “Transitional Justice Globalized”, International Journal of Transitional Justice, 2:1 (2008), 1-4.
Villalba, Clara Sandoval, “Transitional Justice: Key Concepts, Processes and Challenges,” Institute For Democracy And Conflict Resolution (IDCR) (July 2011).
BACKGROUND MATERIAL ON COUNTRIES FEATURED IN THIS SERIES:
ARAB WORLD (General):
- Arab Center for the Independence of the Judiciary and Legal Profession (ACIJLP)
- Arab Network for Human Rights Information
- Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies
- Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights
- Egyptian Organization for Human Rights
- National Council for Human Rights
- National Community of Human Rights and Law
- Transformative Justice in Egypt and Tunisia
Abou-El-Fadl, Reem, “Beyond Conventional Transitional Justice: Egypt’s 2011 Revolution and the Absence of Political Will”, The International Journal of Transitional Justice, 6:2 (2012), 318-330.
Barsalou, Judy, “Transitional Justice in Egypt: One Step Forward, Two Steps Back”, Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Center (June 2012).
Hanna, Michael Wahid, “Egypt’s Search for Truth”, The Cairo Review of Global Affairs, 3 (2011), 67-83.
Kassem, Taha, “Transitional Justice in Post-Revolution Egypt: A Reality or an Illusion?” International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2:5 (2013), 47-56.
Morsy, Ahmed, “Transitional Justice: Egypt’s Way Forward”, Middle East Institute (July 2013).
Petkova, Mariya, “Transitional Justice in Egypt: A Comparison”, Aljazeera Center for Studies (December 2012).
Tawab, Ziad Abdel, “The Crisis of Transitional Justice Following the ‘Arab Spring’: Egypt as a Model”, CIHRS (2013).
- Geneva International Centre for Justice (Iraq)
- Iraqi High Tribunal [Iraq’s Official Transitional Justice Court]
- International Legal Assistance Consortium (ILAC) [Justice Sector Support for Iraq]
- Human Rights Watch [International Justice: Iraq]
Afrin, Zakia, “Post-Conflict Justice in Iraq”, Annual Survey of International and Comparative Law, 14:1 (2010), 23-40.
Bassiouni, M. Cherif, “Post-Conflict Justice in Iraq: An Appraisal of the Iraq Special Tribunal”, Cornell International Law Journal 101 (2005).
Bell, Christine, Colm Campbell, Fionnuala Ni Aolain, “The Battle for Transitional Justice: Hegemony, Iraq and International Law”. In John Morison, Kieran McEvoy, and Gordon Anthony (eds) Judges, Transition, and Human Rights (Oxford University Press, 2007), 147-165.
Hollywood, Dana Michael, “The Search for Post-Conflict Justice in Iraq: A Comparative Study of Transitional Justice Mechanisms and Their Applicability to Post-Saddam Iraq” Brooklyn Journal of International Law, 59 (2007), 116-121.
ICTJ and Human Rights Center, University of California at Berkeley, Iraqi Voices: Attitudes Toward Transitional Justice and Social Reconstruction (May 2004).
Law, Leonard J., “Rule of Law in Iraq: Transitional Justice Under Occupation”, US Army Staff College, Ft. Leavenworth (2004).
Sarkin, Jeremy and Heather Sensibaugh, “Why achieving reconciliation in Iraq is possible: Suggestions for mechanisms and processes including a truth and reconciliation commission”, PRAXIS: The Fletcher Journal of Human Security, 23 (2008), 5-32.
Sissons, Miranda, and Abdulrazzaq Al-Saiedi, “A Bitter Legacy: Lessons of De-Baathification in Iraq”, International Center for Transitional Justice (March 2013).
Sissons, Miranda, “Iraq’s New ‘Accountability and Justice’ Law”, ICTJ Briefing Paper (January 22, 2008).
Stover, Eric, Hanny Megally, and Hania Mufti, “Bremer’s ‘Gordian Knot’: Transitional Justice and the US Occupation of Iraq”, Human Rights Quarterly, 27:3 (2005), 830-853.
Stover, Eric, Miranda Sissons, Phuong Pham and Patrick Vinck, “Justice on Hold: Accountability and Social Reconstruction in Iraq”, International Review of the Red Cross, 90:869 (March 2008), 5-28.
Tarin, Danielle, “Prosecuting Saddam and Bungling Transitional Justice in Iraq”, Virginia Journal of International Law (Winter 2005), 467.
Hanafi, Leila, “Libya and the ICC: In the Pursuit of Justice?” The North Africa Journal (May 15, 2012).
Hayner, Priscilla, “Libya: The ICC Enters During War”, European Council on Foreign Relations (November 2013).
International Crisis Group, Trial by Error: Justice on Post-Qadhafi Libya, Middle East/North Africa Report, No. 140 (April 17, 2013).
International Legal Assistance Consortium, Rule of Law Assessment Report: Libya 2013, (May 2013).
Kersten, Mark, “Lustration in Libya: Ruling Congress to Pass ‘Political Isolation Law’”, Justice in Conflict (December 28, 2012).
Triponel, Anna and Paul R. Williams. “The Clash of the Titans: Justice and Realpolitik in Libya”, American University International Law Review, 28:3 (2013), 776-834.
Tupaz, Edsel, “International Justice and Post-Conflict Reconstruction in Libya”, JURIST – Sidebar (August 31, 2011).
Tupaz, Edsel and Daniel Wagner, “Ensuring Justice in Transitional Libya”, JURIST - Sidebar (November 10, 2011).
- The Damascus Bureau: Transitional Justice for Syria
- IRIN Analysis: The Beginnings of Transitional Justice in Syria
- UNHCR: The Beginnings of Transitional Justice in Syria
- Syria Justice and Accountability Centre (SJAC)
- Syria: What is Transitional Justice? [IWPR]
- Center for Documentation of Violations in Syria
- United Nations Independent International Commission of Inquiry on Syria
Dworkin, Anthony, “Dilemmas of Justice, Accountability and Peace in Syria”, European Council on Foreign Relations (November 2013).
PILPG, “Mapping Accountability Efforts in Syria (February 2013).
Seils, Paul, “Towards a Transitional Justice Strategy for Syria”, ICTJ (September 2013).
- No Peace without Justice International Criminal Justice Program (Tunisia)
- Kawakibi Democracy Transition Center
- Transformative Justice in Egypt and Tunisia
Gray, Doris H. and Terry Coonan, “Notes from the Field: Silence Kills! Women and Transitional Justice in Post-Revolutionary Tunisia”, The International Journal of Transitional Justice, 7 (2013), 348-357.
Gray, Doris, “In Search of Righting Wrongs: Women and the Transitional Process in Tunisia”, e-International Relations (April 2013).
Lamont, Christopher and Hela Boujneh, “Transitional Justice in Tunisia: Negotiating Justice During Transition”, Politička misao, 49:5 (2012), 32-49.
Mersch, Sara, “The Road to Justice”, Sada Journal (June 2013).
Patel, Ian, “The Limits of Transitional Justice: Orthodoxies in the Transitional Process in Tunisia”, Oxford Transitional Justice Research (OTJR) seminar (2012).
Preysing, Domenica, “Towards ‘Transitional justice’? Policy discourse and processes in Tunisia and Egypt”, draft paper for the BRISMES Annual Conference (March 2012).
- NGO Law Monitor: Yemen
- Sawa’a Organization for Anti-Discrimination
- Yemen Center for Transitional Justice (YCTJ)
Al-Zwaini. Laila, “The Rule of Law in Yemen: Prospects and Challenges”, HiiL’s Rule of Law Quick Scan Series (September 2012).
The Peace and Justice Initiative, Position Paper on Yemeni Draft Law on Transitional Justice and National Reconciliation (March 21, 2012).
Sharqieh, Ibrahim, “International Intervention, Justice, and Accountability in Yemen”, European Council on Foreign Relations (November 2013).
Sharqieh, Ibrahim, “A Lasting Peace? Yemen’s Long Journey to National Reconciliation”, Brookings Institution (February 2013).
- Cambodia: BBC Timeline
- Cambodia: CIA World Factbook
- Documentation Center of Cambodia
- POV Documentaries on the Khmer Rouge Period
- Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia
- United Nations Assistance to Khmer Rouge Trials
- The Cambodia Law and Policy Journal
Ablin, David A. and Marlowe Hood (Eds.) 1990. The Cambodian Agony. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Abrams, J., “The Atrocities in Cambodia and Kosovo: Observations on the Codification of Genocide”. New England Law Review, 35:2(Winter 2001), 303.
Beauvais, Joel C., “Cambodia, East Timor and Sierra Leone: Experiments in International Justice”, Criminal Law Forum, 12 (2001), 185.
Bit, Seanglim. 1991. The Warrior Heritage: A Psychological Perspective of Cambodian Trauma. Le Cerrito, CA: Seanglim Bit.
Boyden, Jo and Gibbs, Sara. 1997. Children of War: Responses to Psycho-Social Distress in Cambodia. Geneva: UNRISD.
Boyle David. “One More Step - Adoption of the Khmer Rouge Trial Law”. Judicial Diplomacy, Revue Internet (August 5, 2001).
Bunyanunda, Mann. “The Khmer Rouge on Trial: Wither the Defense?” Southern California Law Review (2000-2001), 1581.
Center for Social Development. 2001. The Khmer Rouge and National Reconciliation: Opinions from the Cambodians. Phnom Penh: Center for Social Development.
Chandler, David P., “Will There Be a Trial for the Khmer Rouge?” Annual Journal of the Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs 14 (2000).
Chea, Vannath. “Reconciliation in Cambodia: Politics, Culture and Religion”. In Reconciliation after Violent Conflict: A Handbook. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.
Chigas, George, “The Trial of Khmer Rouge: The Role of the Tuol Sleng and Santebal Archives”, Harvard Asia Quarterly (2001).
Chigas, George, “The Politics of Defining Justice after the Cambodian Genocide”, Journal of Genocide Research 2 (2000).
Ciorciari, John D. (Ed.) 2006. The Khmer Rouge Tribunal. Documentation Series No. 10. Phnom Penh, Documentation Center of Cambodia.
Cook, Susan E. (Ed.) 2006. Genocide in Cambodia and Rwanda: New Perspectives. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Cortright, David and George A. Lopez, “Cambodia: Isolating the Khmer Rouge”. In The Sanctions Decade: Assessing UN Strategies in the 1990s, ed. David Cortright and George A. Lopez. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000.
DeNike, Howard J., John Quigley and Kenneth J. Robinson (Eds.) 2000. Genocide in Cambodia: Documents from the Trial of Pol Pot and Ieng Sary. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Donovan, Daniel Kemper, “Joint U.N.-Cambodia efforts to establish a Khmer Rouge Tribunal”. Harvard International Law Journal , 44:2 (2003), 551.
Ea, Meng-Try, and Sorya Sim. 2001. Victims and Perpetrators? Testimony of Young Khmer Rouge Comrades. Phnom Penh: Documentation Center of Cambodia.
Etcheson, Craig, “Accountability Beckons During a Year of Worries for the Khmer Rouge Leadership”. ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law 6 (2000), 507.
Etcheson, Craig. 2005. After the Killing Fields: Lessons from the Cambodian Genocide. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Etcheson, Craig, “Beyond the Khmer Rouge Tribunal”, Phom Penh Post, 12:22 (October 24-November 6, 2003).
Etcheson, Craig, “Faith Traditions and Reconciliation in Cambodia”, paper prepared for the “Settling Accounts? Truth, Justice, and Redress in Post-conflict Societies” Conference, Harvard University. November 1-3, 2004.
Etcheson, Craig, “From Theory to Facts in the Cambodian Genocide”. International Network on Holocaust and Genocide, 12:1-2 (1997), 4-7.
Etcheson, Craig. 2000. The Number - Quantifying Crimes Against Humanity in Cambodia. Phnom Penh: Documentation Center of Cambodia.
Etcheson, Craig. 2002. Retribution and Reconciliation: Healing What Ails Cambodia. A Project Report to the US Institute of Peace. Washington, DC: USIP.
Etcheson, Craig. 1984. The Rise and Demise of Democratic Kampuchea. Boulder: Westview Press.
Gottesman, Evan R. 2003. Cambodia after the Khmer Rouge: Inside the Politics of Nation Building. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Gunn, Geoffrey C., “Kampuchea: The Case for a Genocide Tribunal?” ARENA 81 (1987), 97-108.
Hannum, Hurst, “International Law and Cambodian Genocide: The Sounds of Silence”, Human Rights Quarterly, 11:1 (February 1989), 82-138.
Hawk, David. “The Cambodian Genocide”. In Genocide: A Critical Bibliographic Review, ed. Israel W. Charny, 137-154. New York: Facts on File Publications, 1988.
Heder, Stephen, and Judy Ledgerwood. 1996. Propaganda, Politics and Violence in Cambodia: Democratic Transition under United Nations Peace-Keeping. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Heder, Stephen, and Brian D. Tittemore. Seven Candidates for the Prosecution: Accountability for the Crimes of the Khmer Rouge. Washington: War Crimes Office of the Washington College of Law, American University and the Coalition for International Justice, June 2001.
Kiernan, Ben. “The Cambodian Genocide”. In Genocide: Conceptual and Historical Dimensions, ed. George Andrepolous, 191-228. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania University Press, 1997.
Kiernan, Ben. 1996. The Pol Pot Regime: Race, Power and Genocide in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, 1975-79. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Kiernan, Ben (Ed.) 1993. Genocide and Democracy in Cambodia: The Khmer Rouge, the U.N., and the International Community. Yale Southeast Asia Studies Monograph Number 41. New Haven, CT: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies.
Kiernan, Ben. 1986. How Pol Pot Came to Power: A History of Communism in Kampuchea, 1930-1975. London: Verso.
Kiernan, Ben. 2008. Genocide and Resistance in Southeast Asia: Documentation, Denial, and Justice in Cambodia and East Timor.Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Klosterman, Theresa, “The Feasibility and Propriety of a Truth Commission in Cambodia: Too Little? Too late?” Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law, 15 (Fall 1998), 833.
Lambourne, Wendy, “Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: Meeting Human Needs for Justice and Reconciliation”, Peace, Conflict and Development, 4 (April 2004), 1-24.
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