China’s Relations with the Middle East:

A Bibliography, 1950-2012

 

Sam Chester

School of Advanced International Affairs (SAIS)

Johns Hopkins University

In recent years, fueled by ever expanding economic and political ties, the relationship between China and the Middle East[1]—also known as West Asia by international organizations such as the UN and many Asia-based observers—has been explored in dozens of papers, a handful of books, several conferences and intermittent attention by leading think tanks and the media. As this bibliography demonstrates, the vast majority of recent scholarship is devoted to energy security or Sino-Iranian ties. An unfortunate byproduct of this singular focus is that many papers simply reference prior studies and add little in the way of original research or analysis. Indeed, informed analysis of China’s growing ties with the Middle East remains virgin territory despite the recent surge in published material.

The following bibliography covers all aspects of modern China-Middle East ties—politics, energy, trade, investment, and the rare discussion of cultural exchange. Materials are divided into two categories, contemporary (2001-present) and historical. 2001 was selected as the dividing year because of two key events that year: the September 11 terrorist attacks and China’s admission to the World Trade Organization (WTO), the latter of which led to the surge in cross-Asian ties that continues to this day. Some related topics are excluded from this collection due to the breadth of their literature or to the relative distance from the main focus of this bibliography: the modern relationship between China and the Middle East.

Out of a desire for accessibility and brevity, only English language materials are included in this bibliography. In excluding Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, Turkish and especially Chinese sources, this bibliography by no means dismisses the necessity of reading local commentators in their native tongues. In China in particular, the expansion of commercial and political ties with the Middle East, alongside the growing sophistication of Chinese universities and think tanks, has spurred a great deal of informed discussion of Sino-Middle Eastern affairs. The considerable influence Chinese academic experts at times wield on government policy is yet another reason why Chinese-language analysis would be of value to foreign researchers.

This bibliography was compiled in conjunction with preparing my Masters thesis on Chinese foreign direct investment (FDI) in the Middle East.

The bibliography contains material noted up to December 2012, with several exceptions for edited volumes scheduled for publication in the spring of 2013.

 

Contemporary

(2001-2012)

 

Abdel-Khalek, Gouda and Karima Korayem (2007) “The Impact of China on the Middle East,” Journal of Developing Societies 23:4, 397-434.

Abisellan, Eduardo Lt. Col (2012) “CENTCOM’s China Challenge: Anti-Access and Aerial Denial in the Middle East,” Brookings Institution 21st Century Defense Initiative Policy Paper, June 28. http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2012/6/28%20centcom%20china%20abisellan/28%20centcom%20china%20abisellan

Ahmed, Gaffar K. (2008) “China's Developing Foreign Policy Initiatives towards Major International Issues,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 2:2, 30-46. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/3f/info9535.htm

__________ (2005) “China Relations with the Middle East and North Africa,” International Review (Shanghai). www.siis-orgcn/Sh_Yj_Cms/Mgz/2008724233116XBG4.pdf

Alterman, Jon (2009) “China's Soft Power in the Middle East,” in Carola McGiffert (Ed.), Chinese Soft Power and its implications for the United States: Competition and Cooperation in the Developing world (pp. 63–76). Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

__________ & John Garver (2008) The Vital Triangle: China, The United States and the Middle East. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Ahrari, Ehsan M. (2001) “Iran, China and Russia: The Emerging Anti-U.S. Nexus?” Security Dialogue 32:4, 453-466.

Ameri, Nasser Saghafi & Afsaneh Ahadi (2008) Iran and Look to the East: An Orientation in Iran’s Foreign Policy. Tehran: Center for Strategic Research.

An, Huihou (2012) “The Reasons and Consequences of Political and Social Unrest in Arab Countries,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 6:2, 1-15. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/2b/13/info11027.htm.

__________ (2009) “Middle Eastern Situation in a Changing World,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 3:4, 1-13. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/4a/info9546.htm

Anderson, Scott (2004) “A Potential Partnership: Sino-Saudi Relations,” Wilson Journal of International Affairs 2, 58-73. http://www.student.virginia.edu/~irouva/journal/ContentsS2004.pdf

Andrews-Speed, Philip (2009) “China’s Energy Role in the Middle East and Prospects for the Future,” in Philip Andrews-Speed (Ed.) The New Energy Silk Road: The Growing Asia-Middle East Energy Nexus. Washington, DC: National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR).

Antipov, Konstantin (2012) “Events in the Arab East and China’s Position,” Far Eastern Affairs (Moscow) 40:1, 8-26.

Armijo, Jaqueline M. & Lina M. Kassem (2012) “Turning East: The Social and Cultural Implications of the Gulf’s Increasingly Strong Economic and Strategic Relations with China,” in Singapore Middle East Papers, Asia and the Gulf Vol. 1, pp. 22-45. http://www.mei.nus.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Vol.-1-The-Gulf-and-Asia1.pdf

Bahgat, Gawdat (2005) “Energy Partnership: China and the Middle East.” Twenty-Sixth International Area Conference on Burgeoning Asian Demand: Could Supply Alliances Change? Boulder, CO.

__________ (2005) “Energy Partnership: China and the Gulf States.” OPEC Review 29:2.

__________ (2005) “Energy Partnership: Pacific Asia and the Middle East,” Middle East Economic Survey 148:33.

__________ (2006) “Energy Security: Pacific Asia and the Middle East,” in Michael Wesley (Ed.), Energy Security in Asia. New York, NY: Routledge.

__________ (2006) “Energy Security: Asia and the Middle East,” in Franco Zallio (Ed.), European Union-Gulf Relations. Milan: Italian Institute for International Political Studies, Bocconi University.

Bajpaee, Chietigi, (2006) “China Becomes Increasingly Involved in the Middle East,” PINR. March 10, http://www.pinr.com/report.php?ac=view_report&report_id=455.

Baker, Melinda B. (2010) Beyond Oil? Chinese National Interests and the Sino-Iranian Relationship. Masters Thesis, Georgetown University. https://repository.library.georgetown.edu/bitstream/handle/10822/553441/bakermelinda.pdf?sequence=1

Baru, Sanjaya (2011) “The Gulf and Asia: Geopolitical Implications of Geo-Economic Changes.” Paper presented at the Parsing the Reality and Promise of Gulf-Asia Engagement Seminar, International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), Manama, Bahrain. October 15-16.

Beng, Phar Kim, & Vic Y. W. Li (2005) “China’s Energy Dependence on the Middle East: Boon or Bane for Asian Security?” The China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly 3:3, 19–26.

Bianchi, Robert (2012) Morsy in Beijing: Implications for America’s Relations with China and the Islamic World,” Middle East Insights, Middle East Institute (NUS), No. 75, September 12.

Blumenthal, Dan (2005) “Providing Arms: China and the Middle East,” Middle East Quarterly, Spring, 11-19. http://www.meforum.org/695/providing-arms

Bo, Zhiyue (2011) “China’s Middle East Policy: Strategic Concerns and Economic Interests,” Middle East Insight, Middle East Institute (NUS). http://www.mei.nus.edu.sg/publications/mei-insights/chinas-middle-east-policy-strategic-concerns-and-economic-interests

Brenton, Paul, Lulu Shui, & Peter Walkenhorst (2010) “Globalization and Competition from China and India: Policy Responses in the Middle East and North Africa,” in Jose R. Lopez-Calix, Peter Walkenhorst, & Ndiame Diop (Eds.) Trade Competitiveness of the Middle East and North Africa (pp. 227-266). Washington DC: World Bank. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Pubs/TradeCompetitiveness_in_MENA.pdf

Bubalo, Anthony & Mark P. Thirlwell (2004) “Energy Insecurity: China, India and the Middle East Oil,” Lowy Institute Issues Brief 7, December 14.

Burman, Edward (2009) China and Iran, Parallel History, Future Threat. Stroud, UK: History Press.

Calabrese, John (2009) “The Consolidation of Gulf-Asia Relations: Washington Tuned in or Out of Touch?” Middle East Institute Policy Brief 25, June.

__________ (2007) “The Iraq Energy Factor in Sino-Japanese Relations,” Jamestown China Brief 7:6, March 21. http://www.jamestown.org/programs/chinabrief/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=32612&tx_ttnews[backPid]=197&no_cache=1

__________ (2006) China and Iran: Mismatched Partners. Jamestown Occasional Papers. http://www.jamestown.org/docs/Jamestown-ChinaIranMismatch.pdf

__________ (2005) “Saudi Arabia and China Extend Ties Beyond Oil,” Jamestown China Brief 5:20, September 27. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=30906

__________ (2005) “The Risks and Rewards of China’s Deepening Ties with the Middle East,” Jamestown China Brief 5:12, May 24. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=30440

__________ (2004) "Dragon by the Tail: China's Energy Quandary," Middle East Institute Perspective March 23. http://www.mideasti.org/articles/docl79.html

Calder, Kent (2012) The New Continentalism: Energy and Twenty-First-Century Eurasian Geopolitics. New Haven: Yale Press.

Chase, Michael S. (2007) “China’s Assessment of the War in Iraq: America’s ‘Deepest Quagmire’ and the Implications for Chinese National Security,” Jamestown China Brief 7:17, September 19. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=4419

Chen, James (2011) “The Emergence of China in the Middle East,” Strategic Forum (NDU), No. 271, December.

Chen, Mo (2011) “Exploring Economic Relations between China and the GCC States,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 5:4, 88-105. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/55/info9557.htm

Chen, Shaofeng (2008) “Motivations Behind China’s Foreign Oil Quest: A Perspective from the Chinese Government and the Oil Companies,” Journal of Chinese Political Science 13:1.

Chen, Wen-Sheng (2010) “China's Oil Strategy: ‘Going Out’ to Iran,” Asian Politics and Policy 2, 39–54. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1943-0787.2009.01166.x/full.

Chen, Yiyi (2012) “China’s Relationship with Israel, Opportunities and Challenges: Perspectives from China,” Israel Studies 17:3, 1-21.

Chester, Sam (2013, Forthcoming) Chinese FDI in the Middle East: Politics, Business & Prospects. Masters Thesis. Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS).

__________ (2012) China’s Relations with the Middle East: A Bibliography, 1950-2012. Washington DC: Middle East Asia Project (MAP), Middle East Institute.

Chubin, Shahram (2010) “Iran and China: Political Partners or Strategic Allies?” in Geoffrey Kemp & Abdulaziz Sager (Eds.) China’s Growing Role in the Middle East: Implications for the Region and Beyond (pp. 63-72). Washington, DC: The Nixon Center. http://cftni.org/full-monograph-chinas-growing-role-in-me.pdf

Cristiani, Dario (2006) “China and Iran Strengthen Their Bilateral Relationship,” PINR, October 6. http://www.pinr.com/report.php?ac=view_report&report_id566

Daher, Massoud (2009) “China and the Middle East: Establishing a New Partnership,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 3:1, 18-26. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/40/info9536.htm

Daly, John (2007) “Sino-Turkish Relations Beyond the Silk Road,” Jamestown China Brief 7:4, May 9, http://www.jamestown.org/programs/chinabrief/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=4036&tx_ttnews[backPid]=197&no_cache=1

Davidson, Christopher (2010) The Persian Gulf and Pacific Asia: From Indifference to Interdependence. London: Hurst & Co.

__________ (2010) “Persian Gulf-Pacific Asia Linkages in the 21st Century: A Marriage of Convenience?” Kuwait Programme on Development, Governance and Globalisation in the Gulf States 7, London School of Economics.

Dellios, Rosita & Nadir Kemal Yilmaz (2008) “Turkey and China: A Study in Symmetry,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 2:1 13-30. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/3e/info9534.htm

__________ & Fang Lee Cooke (2008) “Turkey’s FDI Policy and Chinese Foreign Direct Investments in Turkey: Some Economic and Management Implications,” Global Business Review 9:1, 19-44.

Dillon, Michael (2004) “The Middle East and China,” in Anoushiravan Ehteshami & Hannah Carter (Eds.) The Middle East’s Relations with Asia and Russia. London: Routledge.

Djallil, Lounnas (2011) “China and the Iranian Nuclear Crisis: Between Ambiguities and Interests,” European Journal of East Asian Studies, 10, 227-253. http://www.gpf-europe.com/upload/EJEAS_010_02_05-Djallil.pdf

Dorraj, Manochehr & Carrie Currier (2011) “China’s Quest for Energy Security in the Middle East: Strategic Implications,” in Carrie Currier & Manochehr Dorraj (Eds.), China’s Energy Relations with the Developing World (pp. 65-82). London: Continuum Publishers.

__________ (2010) “In Arms We Trust: Strategic and Economic Factors Motivating China-Iran Relations,” The Chinese Journal of Political Science 15:1, 49-69.

__________ (2009) “Reconstructing the Silk Road in a New Era: China’s Expanding Regional Influence in the Middle East,” in Emilian Kavalski (Ed.), China and the Global Politics of Regionalization (pp. 165-176). New York: Ashgate Publishers.

__________ (2008) “Lubricated With Oil: Iran-China Relations in a Changing World,” Middle East Policy 25:2, 66–80.

Dorraj, Manochehr & James English (2013, Forthcoming) “The Dragon Nests: China’s Energy Engagement of the Middle East” in P.R. Kumaraswamy (Ed.) China’s Quest for Power and Influence in the Middle East.

__________ (2012) “China’s Strategy for Energy Acquisition in the Middle East: Potential for Conflict and Cooperation with the United States” Asian Politics and Policy 14:1, 173-191.

__________ (2012) “Iran- China Relations and the Changing Political Map” in Thomas Juneau & Sam Razavi (Ed.) Alone in the World: Iran’s Foreign Policy Since 2001. New York: Routledge.

Douglas, John K., Matthew B. Nelson & Kevin L. Schwartz (2007) “Rising in the Gulf: How China’s Energy Demands are Transforming the Middle East,” Al Nakhlah, Spring.

__________ (2006) Fueling the Dragon’s flame: How China’s Energy Demands Affect its Relationships in the Middle East. Washington, DC: US-China Economic and Security Review Commission. http://www.uscc.gov/researchpapers/2006/China_ME_FINAL.pdf.

Downs, Erica (2012) “Cooperating with China on Iran,” German Marshall Fund: Embassies Dialogue on Asia, January 19. http://www.gmfus.org/wp-content/files_mf/downs_chinairan_jan1280.pdf

__________ (2011) “China-Gulf Energy Relations,” in Wakefield, Bryce & Susan Levenstein (Eds.) China and the Persian Gulf: Implications for the United States (pp. 62-78). Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.

__________ & Suzanne Maloney (2011) “Getting China to Sanction Iran.” Foreign Affairs, 90:2, 15–21.

Economist Intelligence Unit (2007) Near East Meets Far East: The Rise of Gulf Investment in Asia. New York: The Economist Group.

Ehsan Ahrari, M. (2001) “Iran, China, and Russia: The Emerging Anti-U.S. Nexus?” Security Dialogue 32:4.

Ehteshami, Anoushiravan (2004) “Asian Geostrategic Realities and their Impact on Middle East-Asia Relations,” in Anoushiravan Ehteshami & Hannah Carter (Eds.) The Middle East’s Relations with Asia and Russia (pp. 1-21). London: Routledge.

Elmagherbi, Faisal I. & Rong Wang (2011) “Optimum Plan to Improve the Economic Relation between China and Arab World,” Modern Applied Science 5:6, 181-187.

Evron, Yoram (2007) “Sino-Israeli Relations: Opportunities and Challenges,” Strategic Assessment 10 (Institute for National Security Studies, Israel).

Fan, Hongda (2011) “China's Policy Options towards Iran,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 5:1, 45-60. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/52/info9554.htm

Fandy, Mamoun (2005) “China vs. US: A View from the Arab World,” Paper presented at the Energy Security: Implications for U.S.-China–Middle East Relations Conference, Baker Institute & Shanghai Institute for International Studies, Shanghai.

Farhang, Danna (2008) Moving in the Shadows of Power: China’s Middle East Energy Strategy and the Implications for American Vital Interests in the Region. Master’s Thesis, Dalhousie University (Halifax, Canada).

Fite, Brandon (2012) “U.S. and Iranian Strategic Competition: The Impact of China and Russia,” CSIS Burke Chair in Strategy Report, February 6. http://csis.org/files/publication/REPORT_Iran_Chapter_X_China_and_Russi…

Freeman, Chas. W. Jr. (2011) “Gulf-Asia Engagement: Past, Prospects, and Problems,” Paper presented at the Parsing the Reality and Promise of Gulf-Asia Engagement Seminar, International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), Manama, Bahrain. October 15-16.

__________ (2006) “The Arabs Take a Chinese Wife: Sino-Arab Relations in the Decade to Come,” Paper presented at the World Affairs Council of Northern California, Middle East Policy Council. May 7.  www.mepc.org/whats/SinoArabRelations.asp.

Galal, Mohamed Noman (2006) “China-Arab Forum and Its Connotations to China-Africa Forum,” Paper presented at the NEPAD Conference, South Africa. October 16-17. http://sai ia.org.za/image s/upload/Galal_China-Arab%20Forum.pdf

Garver, John W. (2011) “Is China Playing a Dual Game in Iran?” Washington Quarterly 34:1, 75-88. http://csis.org/files/publication/twq11wintergarver.pdf

__________ (2011) “China’s Iran Policies,” Testimony to the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission on China’s Current and Emerging Foreign Policy Priorities (pp. 108-124). April 13. http://www.uscc.gov/hearings/hearingarchive.php#hearings2011

__________ (2006) China and Iran: Ancient Partners in a Post-Imperial world. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.

__________ Flynt Leverett & Hillary Mann Leverett (2009) “Moving (Slightly) Closer to Iran: China’s Shifting Calculus for Managing Its Persian Gulf Dilemma,” Reischauer Center Asia-Pacific Policy Papers Series. http://www.sais-jhu.edu/centers/reischauer/moving_slightly_closer.pdf

Gentry, Brandon (2005) “The Dragon and the Magi: Burgeoning Sino-Iranian Relations in the 21st Century,” The China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly 3, 111-25.

Ghafouri, Mahmoud (2009) “China’s Policy in the Persian Gulf,” Middle East Policy 16:2, 80-92.

Gladney, Dru (2004) Dislocating China: Muslims, Minorities, and Other Subaltern Subjects. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.

Goldstein, Jonathan (2008) “‘Not Just Another Country’: The Olmert Family Sojourn Through China as a Case Study of the Role of Travel in Jewish Identity Formation,” Chinese American Forum 24:1, 15-21.

__________ (2008) “Economic and Cultural Relations Between China and Israel Since the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations in 1992,” in Mark A. Ehrlich (Ed.) The Jewish-Chinese Nexus: A Meeting of Civilizations (253-267). London: Routledge.

__________ (2005) “A Quadrilateral Relationship: Israel, China, Taiwan, and the United States Since 1992,” American Journal of Chinese Studies 12:2, 177–202.

Golia, Maria. (2007) “Egypt’s China Fever,” The Middle East 376, 38-40.

Harold, Scott & Alireza Nader (2012) China and Iran: Economic, Political, and Military Relations. Arlington, VA: RAND.

Harrison, Martin (2006) Relations between the Gulf Oil Monarchies and the People’s Republic of China (1971-2005). Ph.D. Diss., Lancaster University.

Henderson, Simon (2004) China and Oil: The Middle East Dimension. Washington, DC: Washington Institute for Near East Policy.

__________ (2006) “China-Saudi Cooperation: Oil But Also Missiles,” Policy Watch #1095, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, April 21. http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/templateC05.php?CID=2460.

Herberg, Mikkal (2009) “The New Energy Silk Road: The Growing Asia–Middle East Energy Nexus,” in Philip Andrews-Speed (Ed.) The New Energy Silk Road: The Growing Asia-Middle East Energy Nexus. Washington, DC: National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR).

__________ (2009) “The New Energy Silk Road: Implications for the United States,” in Philip Andrews-Speed (Ed.) The New Energy Silk Road: The Growing Asia-Middle East Energy Nexus. Washington, DC: National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR).

__________ (2007) “The Emergence of China throughout Asia: Security and Economic Consequences for the U.S.” Testimony to the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, June 7. http://www.senate.gov/~foreign/testimony/2005/Herberg Testimony050607.pdf.

Hiro, Dilip. (2012) “China Courts the Middle East,” Yale Global, January 30. http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/china-courts-middle-east.

Hoh, Anchi (2007) “The Middle East in the Eyes of the Far East: A Book Review,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 1:1, 78-79. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/3d/info9533.htm

Hokayem, Emile (2011) “Looking East: A Gulf Vision or a Reality?” in Bryce Wakefield & Susan Levenstein (Eds.) China and the Persian Gulf: Implications for the United States (38-44). Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.

Horesh, Niv (2011) “Autophobia? Israel’s Geo-Politics in the Early ‘Chinese Century,’” Chinese Journal of International Politics 4, 291–309.

Huwaidin, Mohamed Bin (2008) “China in the Middle East: Perspectives from the Arab World,” Arab Insight (Washington DC) 2:2, 67-76.

__________ (2007) “Determinants of Saudi Arabia’s Foreign Policy Towards China,” Journal of Strategic Studies 3:7.

Ianchovichina, Elena, Maros Ivanic & Will Martin (2010) “Economic Growth in China and India: Challenges and Opportunities for the Middle East and North Africa,” in Jose R. Lopez-Calix, Peter Walkenhorst, & Ndiame Diop (Eds.), Trade Competitiveness of the Middle East and North Africa (193-226). Washington, DC: World Bank. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTRANETTRADE/Resources/Pubs/TradeCompetitiveness_in_MENA.pdf

International Crisis Group (2010) “The Iran Nuclear Issue: The View from Beijing,” Asia Briefing No. 100, February 17. http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/north-east-asia/b100%20The%20Iran%20Nuclear%20Issue%20The%20View%20from%20Beijing.pdf

International Institute for Strategic Studies (2011) “Still Quite Narrow: the Gulf–Asia 'New Silk Road,'” IISS Strategic Comments 17:14.

Ismail, Norafidah & Tim Niblock (2010) “An Intensifying Sino-Saudi Relations,” in Simon Shen and Jean-Marc Blanchard (Eds.) Multidimensional Diplomacy of Contemporary China. Lexington Books.

Jaffe, Amy Myers (2004) Energy Security: Implications for US-China-Middle East Relations. The James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, Rice University.

Jiang, Wenran (2007) “China’s Growing Energy Relations with the Middle East,” Jamestown China Brief 7:14. http://www.jamestown.org/programs/chinabrief/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]…

Jiang Zhen (n.d.) “Impacts of Iran’s Nuclear Issue on China-U.S. Relation.”  United States Naval Academy. www.usna.edu/MiddleEast/AME/Papers/Zhen%20Jiang%20Paper.pdf

Jin Liangxiang (2005) “Energy First: China and the Middle East,” Middle East Quarterly, 12:2, 3–10.

__________ (2004) “Sino-Arab Relations: New Developments and Trends,” Middle East Policy, 11:4, 113-121.

Kemenade, Willem van (2010) “China vs. the Western Campaign for Iran Sanctions,” The Washington Quarterly 33:3, 99-114.

__________ (2009) “Iran’s Relations with China and the West: Cooperation and Confrontation in Asia,” Clingendael Diplomacy Paper 24. http://www.clingendael.nl/publications/2009/20091100_cdsp_paper_kemenade_iran.pdf

Khan, Sabahat (2008) “The Impact of Future Asian Naval Security Policy on the Persian Gulf,” Institute for Near East and Gulf Military Analysis.

Kemp, Geoffrey (2010) The East Moves West. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute Press.

__________ & Abdulaziz Sager (2010) China’s Growing Role in the Middle East: Implications for the Region and Beyond. Washington, DC: The Nixon Center. http://cftni.org/full-monograph-chinas-growing-role-in-me.pdf

Kogan, Eugene (n.d.) “Sino-Israeli Arms Deals: Upsetting a Delicate Balance?” Jamestown China Brief 4:17. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=3672

Korin, Anne & Gal Luft (2004) “The Sino-Saudi Connection.” Commentary.

Kumaraswamy, P.R. (2013, Forthcoming) China’s Quest for Power and Influence in the Middle East.

__________ (2012) “Israel-China Arms Trade: Unfreezing Times.” Middle East Institute. July 16. http://www.mei.edu/content/israel-china-arms-trade-unfreezing-times

__________ (2006) “At What Cost Israel-China Ties?” Middle East Quarterly, 37-44

__________ (2005) “Israel-China Relations and the Phalcon Controversy,” Middle East Policy 12, 93-103.

Lai, Hongyi Harry (2007) “China's Oil Diplomacy: Is it a Global Security Threat?” Third World Quarterly 28, 519–537.

Lam, Willy (2011) “Beijing Wary of ‘Color Revolutions’ Sweeping Middle East/North Africa,” Jamestown China Brief 11:3, February 10. http://www.jamestown.org/programs/chinabrief/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=37487&cHash=a6ab3aad48b1a50ea27f182011856187

__________ (2004) “China’s Reaction to America’s Iraq Imbroglio,” Jamestown China Brief 4:8, April 14. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=26414

Legrenzi, Matteo (Ed.) (2013, Forthcoming) The Gulf Across East and West: Charting GCC and Iranian Inter-Asian Relations. London: Ashgate.

Leverett, Flynt, & Jeffery Bader (2006) “Managing China-U.S. Energy Competition in the Middle East,”  Washington Quarterly 29:1, 87–201.

Lee, Henry & Dan Shalmon (2007) “Searching for Oil: China’s Oil Initiatives in the Middle East,” Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/files/china%20oil%20h%20lee%202007.pdf

Li Guofu (2009) “China in the Middle East,” Paper prepared for the Fourth Dialogue on U.S.-China Relations in a Global Context, Washington, DC, May 12. http://www.gwu.edu/~sigur/research/uschina.cfm 

Li Shaoxian & Tang Zhichao (2007) “China and the Middle East,” Contemporary International Relations, 17:1, 22-31.

Li, Weijian (2009) “The Transformation of the International System and China’s Positive Diplomacy in the Middle East,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 3:1, 27-35. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/40/info9536.htm

Liang, Pingan (2008) “China’s Potential Contribution to Middle East Cooperation,” in Mark A. Ehrlich (Ed.) The Jewish-Chinese Nexus: A Meeting of Civilizations. London: Routledge.

Lin, Christina (2011) “The PLA’s ‘Orient Express’: Militarization of the Iron Silk Road,” Jamestown China Brief 11:5. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=37698&tx_ttnews[backPid]=517

__________ (2011) “The New Silk Road: China’s Energy Strategy in the Greater Middle East,” Washington Institute for Near East Policy (Policy Focus #109). http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/uploads/Documents/pubs/PolicyFocus109.pdf

__________ (2010) “The Caspian Sea: China’s Silk Road Strategy Converges with Damascus,” Jamestown China Brief 10:17. http://www.jamestown.org/programs/chinabrief/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=36771&tx_ttnews[backPid]=414&no_cache=1

__________ (2010) “The East Asian Loophole in Iran Sanctions: Encouraging Compliance by Our Allies and China,” Washington Institute for Near East Policy (Policy Watch #1698). http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/the-east-asian-loophole-in-iran-sanctions-encouraging-compliance-by-our-all

__________ (2010) “Syria in China’s New Silk Road Strategy,” Jamestown China Brief 10:8, April 16.  http://www.jamestown.org/programs/chinabrief/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=36264&tx_ttnews[backPid]=414&no_cache=1

__________ (2009) “China’s Persian Gulf Strategy: Israel and a Nuclearizing Iran,” Jamestown China Brief 9:21. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=35633

Liu Baolai (2009) “Different Civilizations, Common Aspirations: Shared Interests Enable China and Arab Countries to Develop a Closer Rapport Both Politically and Economically,” Beijing Review 52:46, 14-15.

__________ (2008) “New Development of Sino-Arab Relations over 30 Years,” Chinese People’s Institute of Foreign Affairs Journal 90. http://www.cpifa.org/en/q/listQuarterlyArticle.do?articleId=158

 __________ (2006) “Making Strides: Marking Half a Century of Diplomatic Relations, China and the Arab Nations are Expected to Channel Greater Efforts in Boosting Exchanges,” Beijing Review 49:29, 16-17.

Liu Jun & Wu Lei (2010) “Key Issues in China-Iran Relations,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 4:1, 40-57. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/4a/info9546.htm

Liu Zhongmin (2012) “On Political Unrest in the Middle East and China's Diplomacy,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 6:1, March, 1-18. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/26/82/info9858.htm

__________ (2011) “China's Diplomacy on the Hot Issues of Middle East: History, Ideas, Experiences and Impact,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 5:2, June, 68-91. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/53/info9555.htm

__________ (2010) “Tension between the Islamic Middle East and the International System: A Sub-state Perspective” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 4:2, 66-84. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/4a/info9546.htm

Luo Yuan (2010) “China's Strategic Interests in the Gulf and Trilateral Relations Among China, the U.S. and Arab Countries,” in Geoffrey Kemp & Abdulaziz Sager (Eds.) China’s Growing Role in the Middle East: Implications for the Region and Beyond. The Nixon Center, 23-30. http://cftni.org/full-monograph-chinas-growing-role-in-me.pdf

Luft, Gal (2004) Fueling the Dragon: China’s Race into the Oil Market. Institute for the Analysis of Global Security. http://www.iags.org/china.htm

Lufti, Ahmad (2001) “Blowback: China and the Afghan Arabs [includes China’s Policies Towards the Uighur],” Issues and Studies (Taipei) 37:1, 160-214.

Ma Lirong (2010) “China's Cultural and Public Diplomacy to Countries in the Middle East,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 4:2, 32-43. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/4f/info9551.htm

Madsen, Julian (2006) “China’s Policy in the Gulf: From Neglect to Necessity,” PINR, October 27. http://www.pinr.com/report.php?ac=view_report&report_id=575&language_id=1

Maleki, Abbas (2007) “China-Middle East Dialogue in the Age of Rising Energy Demand in East Asia,” in Ann L. Griffiths (Ed.), Global Perspectives on Oil and Security, Halifax: Dalhhousie University Press.

Matthews, Steven (2005) “China’s New Energy Focus: Strategic Partnership with Saudi Arabia,” Paper presented at the Energy Security: Implications for U.S.-China–Middle East Relations Conference, Baker Institute & Shanghai Institute for International Studies, Shanghai. http://www.bakerbotts.com/files/Publication/8dd9a398-bd08-4c27-9309-44436ff39c81/Presentation/PublicationAttachment/86d1ad0a-fe3c-46c4-a2e6-4499134a953b/ChinasNewEnergy.pdf

Mao Yufeng (2007) “China’s Interests and Strategy in the Middle East and Arab World” in Joshua Eisenman, Eric Heginbotham & Derek Mitchell (Eds.) China and the Developing World (pp. 113-132). Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Maor, Ilan (2008) “Sino-Israeli relations at the Start of the Second Decade: A View from Shanghai and Jerusalem” in Mark A. Ehrlich (Ed.) The Jewish-Chinese Nexus: A Meeting of Civilizations (pp. 239-252). London: Routledge.

Mazza, Michael (2011) “China-Iran Ties: Assessment and Implications for U.S. Policy,” AEI Iran Tracker, April 21. http://www.irantracker.org/analysis/michael-mazza-china-iran-ties-asses…

McCrum, Philip (2011) “China and the Arabian Sea” Middle East Report 256. http://www.merip.org/mer/mer256/china-arabian-sea

Molavi, Afshin (2011) “GCC-Asia Integration and the Missing “Soft Power” Bridge: Higher Education,” Paper presented at the Parsing the Reality and Promise of Gulf-Asia Engagement Seminar, International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), Manama, Bahrain. October 15-16.

__________ (2011) “The New Silk Road: ‘Chindia’ and the Geoeconomic Ties that Bind the Middle East and Asia.” in Wakefield, Bryce and Susan Levenstein (Eds.) China and the Persian Gulf: Implications for the United States (pp. 45-53). Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.

Murphy, Dawn (2012) “Rising Revisionist: China’s Relations with the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa in the post-Cold War Era.” Ph.D. diss., George Washington University.

__________ & David Shambaugh (2012) “U.S.-China Interactions in the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and Latin America.” in David Shambaugh (Ed.) Tangled Titans: The United States and China. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Murphy, Emma (2009) “Learning the Right Lessons From Beijing: A Model for the Arab World,” in Robert Springborg (Ed.) Development Models in Muslim Contexts: Chinese, ‘Islamic’ and Neo-Liberal Alternatives (pp. 85-114). Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press.

Naficy, Hormoz (2009) “Iran’s Views on the Future of Energy Relations with China and Asia,” in Philip Andrews-Speed (Ed.) The New Energy Silk Road: The Growing Asia-Middle East Energy Nexus. Washington, DC: National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR).

Newendorp, Terry (2011) “Barriers and Obstacles to GCC-Asia Economic Relations: Closing the Triangle,” Paper presented at the Parsing the Reality and Promise of Gulf-Asia Engagement Seminar, International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), Manama, Bahrain. October 15-16.

Obaid, Nawaf, Amy Jaffe, Edward L. Morse, Chad Gracia, & Kirk Bromley (2002) The Sino-Saudi Energy Rapprochement: Implications for US National Security. Washington, DC: The Gracia Group Report, Department of Defense, January 8. http://www.bakerinstitute.org/programs/energy-forum/publications/docs/SinoSaudiStudyFinal.pdf/view

Olimat, Muhamad (2012) China and the Middle East: From Silk Road to Arab Spring. New York: Routledge.

__________ (2010) “China and the Middle East,” in Dennis Hickey and Baogang Guo (eds.) Dancing with the Dragon: China’s Emergence in the Developing World. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield-Lexington Books, 165-195.

__________ (2010) “The Political-Economy of the Sino-Middle Eastern Relations,” Journal Of Chinese Political Science 15 307-335.

Pan Guang (2008) “China's Energy Strategy and Primary Role of the Middle East in This Strategy,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 2:2 62-72. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/3f/info9535.htm

Pan Zhenqiang (2010) “China and the Middle East” in Geoffrey Kemp & Abdulaziz Sager (Eds.) China’s Growing Role in the Middle East: Implications for the Region and Beyond (pp. 73-96). Washington, DC: Nixon Center. http://cftni.org/full-monograph-chinas-growing-role-in-me.pdf

Pant, Harsh V. (2008) “Alternative Superpowers and the Middle East,” Labour Friends of Israel Policy Focus, (London).

__________ (2006) “Saudi Arabia Woos China and India.” Middle East Quarterly, 13:4, 45–52. www.meforum.org/1019/saudi-arabia-woos-china-and-india

Pember-Finn, Tom (2011) “China and the Middle East: The Emerging Security Nexus,” Stanford Journal of East Asian Affairs 11:1, 37-46. www.stanford.edu/group/sjeaa/journal111/China4.pdf

Pham, J. Peter (2011) “China’s Interests in the Middle East and North Africa in the Light of Recent Developments in those Regions,” Testimony to the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission on China’s Current and Emerging Foreign Policy Priorities (pp. 52-62). April 13. http://www.uscc.gov/hearings/hearingarchive.php#hearings2011

Pigato, Miria (2009) Strengthening China's and India's Trade and Investment Ties to the Middle East and North Africa. Washington: World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/2626

Pradhan, Samir R. (2008) “Dubai Inc. in China: A New Vista for Gulf-Asia Relations,” Jamestown China Brief, 8:9, April 28. http://www. jamestown.org/terrorism/news/uploads/cb_008_009a.pdf

Qian Xuewen (2011) “Sino-Arab Economic and Trade Cooperation: Situations, Tasks, Issues and Strategies” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 5:4, 65-87. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/55/info9557.htm

__________ (2010) “China's Energy Cooperation with Middle East Oil-producing Countries,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 4:3, 65-80. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/50/info9552.htm

__________ & Li Huanmin (2009) “Maintaining Cooperation within Competition: The Inevitable Path of China's Energy Cooperation in the Middle East,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 3:1, 52-65. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/40/info9536.htm

Radtke, Kurt (2007) “China and the Greater Middle East: Globalization No Longer Equals Westernization,” in M. Parvizi Amineh (Ed.) The Greater Middle East in Global Politics. Leiden, UK: Brill.

Rahim, Saad (2008) “China’s Energy Strategy toward the Middle East,” in Gabriel B. Collins, Andres S Erickson, Lyle J Glodstein & William S. Murray (Eds.) China’s Energy Strategy—The Impact on Beijing’s Maritime Policies. Annapolis, MD: China’s Maritime Studies Institute and the Naval Institute Press. 

Razani, Ehsan & Nor Azizan Idris (2012) “Iran’s China Policy; A Neglected Theme in the Field of Iranian Foreign Policy Studies” Institute for Middle East Strategic Studies (Tehran).  http://en.merc.ir/default.aspx?tabid=98&ArticleId=429

Russell, Richard L. (2005) “China’s WMD foot in the Greater Middle East’s door.” Middle East Review of International Affairs 9:3. http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2005/issue3/jv9no3a6.html

__________ (2005) “China’s Strategic Prongs: Saudi Arabia, Iran and Pakistan” in Richard L. Russell (Ed.) Weapons Proliferation and War in the Greater Middle East. London: Routledge.

al-Saadi, Abdullah Saleh (2012) “The Origins of Omani-China Friendship: A Historical Review,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 6:2, 84-105. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/2b/13/info11027.htm.

Sager, Abdulaziz (2010) “GCC-China Relations: Looking Beyond Oil-Risks and Rewards,” in Geoffrey Kemp & Abdulaziz Sager (Eds.) China’s Growing Role in the Middle East: Implications for the Region and Beyond (1-22). Washington, DC: Nixon Center. http://cftni.org/full-monograph-chinas-growing-role-in-me.pdf

Seznec, Jean-Francois (2011) “China and the Gulf in 2010: A Political Economic Survey,” in Bryce Wakefield & Susan Levenstein (Eds.) China and the Persian Gulf: Implications for the United States (pp. 54-61). Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.

__________ (2009) “Energy and Trade Relations between China and Saudi Arabia: A Continuing Evolution,” in Philip Andrews-Speed (Ed.) The New Energy Silk Road: The Growing Asia-Middle East Energy Nexus. Washington, DC: National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR).

Sfakianakis, John (2009) “Saudi-China Trade Relations.” SAAB Bank Research Notes. www.theiafm.org/download.php?id=378

Shai, Aron (2011) “Sino-Israeli Relations: Current Reality and Future Prospects,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 5:2, 17-42. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/53/info9555.htm

Shen, Dingli (2006) “Iran’s Nuclear Ambitions Test China’s Wisdom,” Washington Quarterly 29:2, 55-66.

Shichor, Yitzhak (2011) “Storm in a (Jasmine) Teacup: China’s Response to the Middle East Upheavals.” Paper prepared for the German Marshal Fund’s China Forum, Stockholm. June 9.

__________ (2011) “Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick: Non-Traditional Chinese Threats and Middle Eastern Instability,” in Herbert S. Yee (Ed.) China’s Rise: Threat or Opportunity? New York: Routledge.

__________ (2011) “My Heart Is in the West and I Am at the Ends of the East: Changing Israeli Perceptions of Asia,” in Alfred Wittstock (Ed.) The World Facing Israel – Israel Facing the World. Berlin: Frank & Timme.

__________ (2011) “Sweet and Sour: Sino-Saudi Crude Collaboration and US Crippled Hegemony.” Paper prepared for the Resource Diplomacy Under Hegemony Conference, University of Macao & Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, January 19-22.

__________ (2010) “China’s Middle East Strategy: In Search of Wells and Power,” in Lowell Dittmer & George T. Yu (Eds.) China, the Developing World, and the New Global Dynamic. Boulder, CO: Lynne, Rienner Publishers.

__________ (2010) “Hobson’s Choice: China’s Second Worst Option on Iran,” Jamestown China Brief 10:6, March 18. http://www.jamestown.org/programs/chinabrief/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=36168&tx_ttnews[backPid]=414&no_cache=1

__________ (2010) “The U.S. Role in Delaying Sino-Israeli Relations: Two’s Company, Three’s A Crowd,” Jewish Political Studies Review 22:1, 7-32.

__________ (2009) “Libya Cautions China: Economics is no Substitute to Politics,” Jamestown China Brief 9:24, December 3. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=35793

__________ (2009) “Turkey Trot: Military Cooperation between Beijing and Ankara,” Jamestown China Brief 9:8, April 16. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=34868

__________ (2008) “Blocking the Hormuz Strait: China’s Energy Dilemma,” Jamestown China Brief 8:18, September 22. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=5177

__________ (2008) "Net Nationalism: The Globalization of Uyghur Diasporas," in Adoni Alonso &
Pedro J. Oiarzabal (Eds.) Digital Diasporas. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press.

__________ (2007) “China Means Business in Iraq,” Jamestown China Brief 7:21, November 20. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=4542

__________ (2007) “China’s Voting Behavior in the UN Security Council,” Jamestown China Brief 6:18, May 9. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=3976/

__________ (2007) “Reconciliation: Israel’s Prime Minister in Beijing,” Jamestown China Brief 7:2, January 24. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=32423

__________ (2006) “Changing the Guard at the World Uyghur Congress,” Jamestown China Brief 6:25, December 19. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=32346

 

__________ (2006) "Competence and Incompetence: The Political Economy of China's Relations with
the Middle East," Asian Perspective, 30:4, 39-67.

__________ (2006) "China's Upsurge: Implications for the Middle East," Israel Affairs, 12:4, 665-683.

__________ (2006) “Silent Partner: China and the Lebanon Crisis," Jamestown China Brief 6:17, August 16. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=31983

__________ (2006) "Disillusionment: China and Iran's Nuclear Gamble," Freeman Report, Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies and Georgetown University.

__________ (2006) "Fact and Fiction: A Chinese Documentary on 'Eastern Turkestan Terrorism’,"
China and Central Asia Forum Quarterly, 4:2, 89-108.

__________ (2005)"Blow Up: Internal and External Challenges of Uyghur Separatism and Islamic
Radicalism to Chinese Rule in Xinjiang," Asian Affairs, 32:2, 119-135.

__________ (2005) “China’s Kurdish Policy," Jamestown China Brief 6:17, http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=3919

__________ (2005) “Decision Making in Triplicate: China and the Three Iraqi Wars," in Andrew
Scobell & Larry Wortzel (Eds.), Chinese Decision-Making under Stress (191-228). Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute.

__________ (2005) “The U.S. Factor in Israel’s Military Relations with China," Jamestown China Brief 5:12. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=3864

__________ (2004) "Forced Landing: Sino-Israeli Security Relations in the Early 2000s," in K.
Santhanam & Srikanth Kondapalli (Eds.), Asian Security and China 2000-2010 (pp. 387-399). Delhi: Shipra.

__________ (2002) “Much Ado about Nothing: Middle East Perceptions of the ‘China Threat’,” in Herbert Yee (Ed.), The China Threat – Perceptions, Myths and Reality (pp. 312-331). Richmond, UK: Curzon.

Simon, Quint (2011) An International Relations Detective Story: The Mysterious Case of Modern Sino-Israeli Relations, 1948–2011. Thesis, Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University.

Simpfendorfer, Ben. (2009) The New Silk Road. How a Rising Arab World is Turning Away from the West and Rediscovering China. London: Palgrave.

Simpson Jr., George L. (2010) “Russian and Chinese Support for Tehran,” Middle East Quarterly 17:2, 63-72.

Singh, Jagdish N. (2010) “Russian, Chinese and Indian Ambivalence Policies on Iranian Nuclear Question,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 4:4, 64-81. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/51/info9553.htm

Slavin, Barbara (2011) “Iran Turns to China, Barter to Survive Sanctions,” Atlantic Council: Iran Task Force, November. http://www.acus.org/files/publication_pdfs/403/111011_ACUS_IranChina.PDF

Sohn, Injoo (2012) “After Renaissance: China’s Multilateral Offensive in the Developing World,” European Journal of International Relations 18, 77-101.

Steinhilber, Jochen (2006) “China: A New Actor in the Middle East and North Africa Region?”  Dialogue on Globalization Occasional Paper 24 (August), Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, pp. 1-22.  http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/global/03917.pdf.

Stimson Center (2004) “The Middle East and the Rising Asian Powers: Imagining Alternative Futures, Section 2: Gulf-China Relations,” Henry L. Stimson Center East Asia Program for the National Intelligence Council’s 2020 Project. http://dspace.cigilibrary.org/jspui/bitstream/123456789/27577/2/Section%202%20-%20Middle%20East-China%20Relations.pdf?1

Swaine, Michale D. (2010) “Beijing's Tightrope Walk on Iran,” China Leadership Monitor 33, Hoover Institution, June 28. http://www.hoover.org/publications/china-leadership-monitor/article/354…

al-Sudairi, Mohammed Turki (2012) “Sino-Saudi Relations: An Economic History,” Gulf Research Center, August. http://grc.net/data/contents/uploads/Final_Completed_Sino_Saudi_Economic_History_Report_3778.pdf

Sun Degang (2011) “Six Decades of China Middle East Studies: A Review,” Bustan: The Middle East Book Review 2, 15-32. http://202.121.96.130/Download/a7f6a537-ff65-4aff-8b5e-f146bfd07e86.pdf

__________ & Yahia Zoubir (2012) “From Hard Military Bases to Soft Military Presence: US Military Deployment in Iraq Reassessed,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 6:3, 85-106. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/2b/14/info11028.htm

Sun Lixin (2002) “Bright Prospects for Sino-Arab Cooperation,” Beijing Review 45:25, 12-13.

al-Tamimi, Naser (2012) "China Saudi Arabia Relations:  Economic Partnership or Strategic Alliance?" Al-Sabah 2, June.

Tu, Kevin Jianjun, (n.d.) “The Strategic Considerations of the Sino-Saudi Oil Deal,” Jamestown China Brief 6:4. http://www.jamestown.org/programs/chinabrief/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=3930&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=196&no_cache=1

Ungor, Cagdas (2012) “China Reaches Turkey? Radio Peking’s Turkish Language Broadcasts During the Cold War,” All Azimuth: A Journal of Foreign Policy and Peace, 1:2, 19-33.

Vakil, Sanam (2006) “Iran: Balancing East against West,” The Washington Quarterly 29:4.

Van Kamenade, Willem (2010) “China vs. the Western Campaign for Iran Sanctions,” Washington Quarterly, 33:3, 99-114.

Wagner, Daniel & Theodore Karasik (2010) The Maturing Chinese-Saudi Alliance. Dubai: Institute for Near East and Gulf Military Analysis, April 6. www.inegma.com/?navigation=reports&rep=96

Wakefield, Bryce & Susan Levenstein (Eds.) (2011) China and the Persian Gulf. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/ASIA Program_China and the PG.pdf

Wald, Salomon (2004) China and the Jewish People: Old Civilizations in a New Era. Jerusalem: Jewish People Policy Planning Institute.

Wang Jinglie (2010) “Review and Thoughts over the Relationship between China and the Middle East,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 4:1, 16-39. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/4a/info9546.htm

__________ (2010) “Building a New Silk Road: China and Arab Countries Sort Out Programs for Further Mutual Growth,” Beijing Review 53:21, 12-13.

Wen Shuang (2010) The Strait of Hormuz: A Barometer in the Emerging US-Gulf-China Triangular Relationship.” Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Association for Asian Studies.

__________ (2008) From Brothers to Partners: The Evolution of China's Foreign Policy to the Middle East (1949-2008), American University in Cairo.

World Bank (2009) Strengthening MENA’s Trade and Investments Links with China and India. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Woodrow, Thomas (2002) “The Sino-Saudi Connection,” Jamestown China Brief 2:1. http://www.jamestown.org/programs/chinabrief/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=3532&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=192&no_cache=1

Wu Bingbing (2012) “Change in the Middle East: A Case of Egypt,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 6:1, 19-34. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/26/82/info9858.htm

__________ (2011) “Strategy and Politics in the Gulf as Seen from China,” in Bryce Wakefield & Susan Levenstein (Eds.) China and the Persian Gulf: Implications for the United States. Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 10-26.

Wu Kang & Fereidu Fesharaki (2002) “Managing Asia Pacific’s Energy Dependence on the Middle East: Is there a Role for Central Asia?” Asia Pacific Issues 60:1.

Wu Lei (2012) “The Oil Politics & Geopolitical Risks with China ‘Going out’ Strategy toward the Greater Middle East. Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 6:3, 58-84. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/2b/14/info11028.htm

__________ (2009) “The Middle East Oil and the Sino-US Relations,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 3:4, 29-41. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/4a/info9546.htm

__________ & Xuejun Liu (2007) “The ‘China Energy Threat’ Thesis and Sino-U.S. Relations: A Critical Review,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 1:1, 31-45. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/3d/info9533.htm

Wu Lei & Youyong Wang (2009) “Comparative Analysis of China's Energy Activities in the Middle East and Africa,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 3:1, 36-51. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/40/info9536.htm

Yamada, Makio (2013, Forthcoming) “The China Model and the GCC Economies: Common Challenges in the Transition towards a Knowledge Economy” in Matteo Legrenzi (Ed.) The Gulf across East and West: Charting GCC and Iranian Inter-Asian Relations. London: Ashgate.

__________ (2012) “Updating Gulf-Asia Relations, 2011-12.” Paper presented at the University of Exeter’s Gulf Studies Conference.

__________ (2011) "The China Model Debate and Its Implications for Development in GCC Countries." Paper presented at 45th Annual Meeting of the Middle East Studies Association (MESA), Washington D.C., Dec. 3.

__________ (2011) “Gulf-Asia Relations as ‘Post-Rentier’ Diversification? The Case of the Petrochemical Industry in Saudi Arabia” Journal of Arabian Studies 1:1, 99-116.

__________ (2010) "China's Relations with Saudi Arabia, 1990-2009: Beyond 'Energy Nexus'?" Paper presented at the 3rd Annual Conference of China Postgraduate Network, Oxford University, April 9.

Yan Wei (2010) “A League of their Own: China and Arab Nations Continue to Nurture Strategic Relations,” Beijing Review 53:21, 10-11.

Yang Fuchang (2010) “China-Arab Relation in the 60 Years' Evolution,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 4:1, 1-15. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/4a/info9546.htm

Yang Guang (2011) “China’s Geo-Economic Engagement with the Gulf,” Paper presented at the Parsing the Reality and Promise of Gulf-Asia Engagement Seminar, International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), Manama, Bahrain. October 15-16.

Yang Li & Zhang Jin (2012) “Political and Economic Analysis on SWFs of Saudi Arabia.” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 6:3, 28-57. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/2b/14/info11028.htm

Yao Kuangyi (2012) “The Upheaval in the Middle East and China’s Middle East Policy.” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 6:3, 1-27. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/2b/14/info11028.htm

__________  (2007) “Development of Sino-Arab Relations and the Evolution of China’s Middle East Policy in the New Era,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 1:1, 3-19.  http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/3d/info9533.htm

__________ (2005) “Reforms in the Arab World and Development of China-Arab Relations,” International Studies 3, 40-54.

Yetiv, Steve & Lu Chunlong (2007) “China, Global Energy, and the Middle East.” Middle East Journal 61, 199–218.

Yuan Jingdong (2006) "China and the Iranian Nuclear Crisis," Jamestown China Brief, 6:3.

Zambelis, Chris (2012) “China and Qatar Forge a New Era of Relations Around High Finance,” Jamestown China Brief 12:20. October 19. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=39994

________ (2012) “A New Egypt Looks to China for Balance and Leverage,” Jamestown China Brief 12:18. September 21. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=39869&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=589

__________ (2012) “China’s Persian Gulf Diplomacy Reflects Delicate Balancing Act,” Jamestown China Brief 12:4. February 21. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=39029

__________ (2011) “A Swan Song in Sudan and Libya for China’s ‘Non-Interference’ Principle,” Jamestown China Brief 11:15. August 12. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=38319

__________ (2011) “Sino-Turkish Strategic Partnership: Implications of Anatolian Eagle 2010” Jamestown China Brief 11:1. January 14. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=37369

__________ (2010) “Shifting Sands in the Gulf: The Iran Calculus in China-Saudi Arabia Relations” Jamestown China Brief 10:10. May 13. http://www.jamestown.org/programs/chinabrief/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]…

__________ (2010) “Bloc Politics in the Persian Gulf: China’s Multilateral Engagement with the Gulf Cooperation Council” Jamestown China Brief 10:19. September 24. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=36917

__________ (2009) “China Palestinian Policy” Jamestown China Brief 9:5. March 4. http://www.jamestown.org/programs/chinabrief/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=34662&tx_ttnews[backPid]=459&no_cache=1

__________ (2009) “Xinjiang Crackdown and Changing Perceptions of China in the Islamic World?” Jamestown China Brief 9:16. August 5. http://www.jamestown.org/programs/chinabrief/single/?tx_ttnews[tt_news]=35370&tx_ttnews[backPid]=459&no_cache=1

__________ (2008) “The Geopolitics of Sino-Syrian Relations,” Jamestown China Brief 8:20. October 24. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=5231

__________ (2007) “Public Diplomacy in Sino-Egyptian Relations,” Jamestown China Brief, 7:7 http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=4068.

__________ (2006) “Burgeoning China-Yemen Ties Showcase Beijing’s Middle East Strategy,” Jamestown China Brief, 6:11, May 24. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=31710

__________ (2005) “Down the River Nile: China Gains Influence in Egypt,” Jamestown China Brief, 5:22, Oct. 25. http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=31022

__________ & Brandon Gentry (2008) “China through Arab Eyes: American Influence in the Middle East,” Parameters, 38:1, 60-72. http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/parameters/Articles/08spring/zambelis.pdf.

Zan Tao (2009) “Uncertainty and Ambiguity: Turkey's Perception on the Rise of China,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 3:1, 66-79. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/40/info9536.htm

Zha Daojiong (2005) “China’s Energy Security and its International Relations,” China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly 3:3, 39–54.

Zhao Hongtu (2010) “China’s Energy Interest and Security in the Middle East,” in Geoffrey Kemp & Abdulaziz Sager (Eds.) China’s Growing Role in the Middle East: Implications for the Region and Beyond (43-62). Washington, DC: The Nixon Center. http://cftni.org/full-monograph-chinas-growing-role-in-me.pdf

Zhang Ping (2008) “Israel and the Jewish People in Chinese Cyberspace Since 2002,” in Mark A. Ehrlich (Ed.) The Jewish-Chinese Nexus: A Meeting of Civilizations (103-117). London: Routledge.

Zhang Mei (2009) “China’s Interests in the Gulf: Beyond Economic Relations?” Singapore Middle East Institute Perspectives 4, 1–18. http://www.mei.nus.edu.sg/publications/occasional-papers/china%E2%80%99…

Zhang Xiaodong (2010) “China's Strategic Option: Approach to the Greater Middle East through the Eurasian Hinterland,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 4:4, 25-43. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/51/info9553.htm

Zhang Xiaofeng (2010) “Economic Analysis on the Motives of China's FDI in Africa: A Case Study on North Africa,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 4:2, 44-65. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/4f/info9551.htm

Zhu Feng (2010) “Oil Nexus vs. Diplomatic Crux: China’s Energy Demands, Maritime Security and the Middle East Aspirations,” in Geoffrey Kemp & Abdulaziz Sager (Eds.) China’s Growing Role in the Middle East: Implications for the Region and Beyond (31-42). Washington, DC: Nixon Center. http://cftni.org/full-monograph-chinas-growing-role-in-me.pdf

Zhu Weilie (2011) “Middle East Terrorism, Global Governance and China's Anti-terror Policy,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 5:2, 1-16. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/53/info9555.htm

__________ (2010) “On the Strategic Relationship between China and Islamic Countries in the Middle East,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 4:3, 1-27. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/50/info9552.htm

__________ (2009) “Understanding and Respect: On Establishing a Chinese Discourse System for Middle East Studies,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 3:1, 3-17. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/40/info9536.htm

Zhu Zhiqun (2009) “China's New Diplomacy in the Middle East and Its Implication for the United States,” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (in Asia) 3:4, 42-56. http://mideast.shisu.edu.cn/s/33/t/60/25/4a/info9546.htm

__________ (2007) “China’s Middle East Policy and Its Implications for US-China Relations,” in Sujian Guo & Shiping Hua (Eds.) New Dimensions of Chinese Foreign Policy (pp. 165-178). New York: Lexington/Rowman & Littlefield.

__________ (2007) “Petroleum and Power: China, the Middle East, and the United States,” Yale Journal of International Affairs 2:2, pp. 25-40.

Zoninsein, Manuela (2011) “The Sino Sustainability Opportunity for Israel,” IsraelStrategist.com, August.

 

Historical

(1950-2000)

 

Abadi, Jacob (1994) “Piercing the Bamboo Curtain: The Triumph of Israel’s China Policy,” Mediterranean Quarterly (Washington DC) 5:3, 57-80.

Abidi, A. H.  (1982) China, Iran and the Persian Gulf, New Delhi: Radiant.

__________ (1979) “China and the Persian Gulf: Relations During the Seventies,” IDSA Journal 12:2, 143-152.

Acharya, Alka (1990) “Crisis in the Gulf: Fallout for China.” Strategic Analysis 14:7, 773-786.

Acharya, Amitav (1989) “China’s Arm Sales in the Gulf: A Research Note.” Middle East Strategic Studies Quarterly 1:3, 118-130.

Adie, W. (1975) “Arabs, Oil and Chinese History,” Asian Profile 3:4, 345-358.

__________ (1971) China, Israel and the Arabs (Conflict Studies 12). London: Institute for the Study of Conflict.

__________ (1967) “China’s Middle East Strategy,” World Today 23:8, 317-26.

__________ (1962) “The Middle East: Sino-Soviet Discord,” Survey (London) 42, June, 132-47.

Agwani, Mohammad Shafi (1965) “The Soviet Union, China and West Asia,” International Studies 6:4, 345-366.

Ahmad, Nazir (1981) “Persian Influence in China,” Studies in Islam 18:1-2, 37-60.

Allen, Robert Loring (1958) Middle Eastern Economic Relations with the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and Mainland China. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia.

Allerhand, Glen (1981) “Sino-Palestinian Relations.” Journal of International Affairs 35:1, 133-35.

Andreyev, L. (1980) “China’s Middle East Policy.” International Affairs (Moscow) 10, 46-54.

Anonymous (1964) “China, the Arab World and Africa: A Factual Survey 1959-1964,” Mizan Newsletter, 6:5, 1-56.

Azar, Edward (1979) “Soviet and Chinese Roles in the Middle East,” Problems of Communism 28:3, 18-30.

Bartke, W. (1989) The Economic Aid of P.R. China to Developing and Socialist Countries. London: KG Saur.

Behbehani, Hashim S.H. (1985) China and the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen. London: KPI.

__________ (1981) China’s Foreign Policy in the Arab World, 1955-75: Three Case Studies. London: KPI.

 Ben-Dak, Joseph D. (1972) “China and Peace in the Middle East: A Proposal for Conflict Resolution,” Middle East Information Series 18, April, 30-35.

__________ (1970) “China in the Arab World,” Current History, 59, 147-152.

Benite, Zvi Ben-Dor (2008) “‘Nine Years in Egypt:’ Al-Azhar University and the Arabization of Chinese Islam,” HAGAR: Studies in Cultures, Polity and Identities, 8:1, 105-128.

Brecher, Michael (1976) “Israel and China: A Historic ‘Missed Opportunity,’” in Michael Curtis & Susan Gitelson (Eds.) Israel in the Third World (pp. 212-217). New York: Transaction Inc.

__________ (1974) Israel, the Korean War and China: Images, Decisions and Consequences. Jerusalem Academic Press.

Burroughs, Diana (1983) “China’s Foreign Policy Toward the Arab World 1949-1980.” Ph.D. diss., Princeton University.

Calabrese, John (1998) “China and the Persian Gulf: Energy and Security,” Middle East Journal 52:3, 351-66.

__________ (1993) “Peaceful or Dangerous Collaborators? China’s Relations with the Gulf Countries,” Pacific Affairs 64:4, 471–485.

__________ (1991) China's Changing Relations with the Middle East. New York: Pinter Publishers.

__________ (1990) “From Flyswatter to Silkworms: The Evolution of China’s Role in West Asia,” Asian Survey 30.

Carlson, Sevin C. (1971) “China’s Urgent Need for Stability in the Middle East,” New Middle East (London) 36, September, 25-31.

__________ (1970) “The Explosion of a Myth: China, the Soviet Union and the Middle East,” New Middle East (London) 27, December, 32-40.

Chang Chenpang (1984) “Chinese Communist Double Dealing in the Gulf Crisis,” Issues and Studies (Taiwan) 20:8, 1-4.

Chen F. T. (1972) “Peking and the Worsening Relations between Egypt and the Soviet Union.” Issues and Studies (Taiwan) 9:1, 13-16.

Chun Hongchan (1990) “Soviet-Chinese Competition in the Third World: A Case Study of the Middle East, 1971-1985.” Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Chun, Sadi Yang Chao (1989) “Historical Retrospection of the Cultural Exchange Between China and Turkey” ERDEM 5:15, 725-747.

Cooley, John (1972) "China and the Palestinians," Journal of Palestine Studies 1:2, 19-34.

Cooper, John Franklin (1969) “Chinese Objectives in the Middle East,” China Report (New Delhi) 5, Jan., 8-13.

Disney, Nigel (1977) “China and the Middle East,” Middle East Research and Information Project 63, Dec. 3-18.

Dunner, Joseph (1972) “Israel and the People’s Republic of China,” Southeast Asian Perspectives (New York) 8, 1-26.

Ehteshami, Anoushiravan (1992) “The Rise and Convergence of the ‘Middle’ in the World Economy: The Case of the NICs and the Gulf States,” in Charles E. Davies (Ed.) Global Interests in the Arab Gulf. Exeter: University of Exeter Press.

Emadi, Hafizullah (1997) China's Foreign Policy toward the Middle East. London: Royal Book Company.

__________ (1994) “China and the Palestine Resistance Movement, 1960-1992.” Mediterranean Quarterly (Washington, DC) 5:3, 81-94.

Farra, Randa (1966) “The Chinese People’s Republic and the Arab World,” Middle East Forum 42:1, 43-50.

Freeze, R. (1979) “The Arab and China,” Arab Report 3, Feb.

Funabashi, Yoichi (1993) “The Asianization of Asia,” Foreign Affairs, Dec.

Gill, Bates (1998) “Chinese Arms Exports to Iran,” Middle East Review of International Affairs, 2:2, 55-70.

Gladney, Dru (1999) "The Salafiyya Movement in Northwest China: Islamic Fundamentalism among the Muslin Chinese" in Leif Manger (Ed.) Muslim Diversity: Local Islam in Global Contexts (pp. 102-149). Surrey, UK: Curzon Press.

__________ (1998) "Transmitting Knowledge about Islam in China: Traditionalization, Modernity, and the State," in Turaj Atabaki & John O'Kane (Eds.) Post-Soviet Central Asia (pp. 51-76). London: I.B. Tauris.

__________ (1996) "Relational Alterity: Constructing Dungan (Hui), Uygur, and Kazakh Identities across China, Central Asia, and Turkey," History and Anthropology 9:2, 445-477.

__________ (1994) "Sino-Middle Eastern Perspectives and Relations since the Gulf War: Views from Below," International Journal of Middle East Studies, 26:4.

Goldstein, Jonathan (Ed.) (1999) China and Israel, 1948-1998: A Fifty Year Retrospective. New York: Praeger.

Gottleib, Gidon (1975) “China and Japan and the Arab Israel Conflict,” in Seymour M. Finger (Ed.) The New World Balance and Peace in the Middle East: Reality or Mirage? (pp. 126-136). Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.

__________ (1972) “China and the Middle East,” Middle East Information Series 18, 2-10.

Gozzano, Francesco (1972) “China’s Stand on the Middle East,” New Outlook (Tel Aviv) 5:1, 39-42.

Hacohen, David (1963) "Behind the Scenes of Negotiations between Israel and China," New Outlook (Tel Aviv) 6:9, Dec.

Hadi, Abdel-Rahman M. (1985) China, India and the Middle East. Master’s thesis, Marquette University.

Han Xiaoxing (1994) “China-Middle East Links,” China Business Review (Washington D.C.) 21:2, 46-49.

__________ (1993) “Sino-Israeli Relations,” Journal of Palestinian Studies (Washington D.C.) 22:2, 62-77.

Harris, Jonathan (1966) Communist Strategy Towards the ‘National Bourgeoisie’ in Asia and the Middle East, 1945-1961. Ph.D. diss., Columbia University.

Harris, Lillian Craig (1999) “The People’s Republic of China and the Arab Middle East, 1948-1996: Arab Perspectives,” in Jonathan Goldstein (Ed.) China and Israel, 1948-1998: A Fifty Year Retrospective (pp. 47-64). New York: Praeger.

__________ (1994) “Myth and Reality in China’s Relations with the Middle East,” in Thomas W. Robinson & David Shambaugh (Eds.) Chinese Foreign Policy: Theory and Practice (pp. 332-347). New York: Oxford University Press.

__________ (1993) “Xinjiang, Central Asia and the Implications for China’s Policy in the Islamic world,” China Quarterly 133, 111–129.

__________ (1993) China Considers the Middle East. New York: I.B. Tauris.

__________ (1991) “The Gulf Crisis and China’s Middle East Dilemma,” Pacific Review (Oxford) 4:2, 116-25.

__________ (1980) “China’s Response to Perceived Soviet Gains in the Middle East,” Asian Survey 20:4, 362-372.

__________ (1977) “China’s Relations with the P.L.O.,” Journal of Palestine Studies 7:1:25, 123-54.

Hazou, Micheline (1981) “Peking to Cairo: Return to the Arab Camp.” Monday Morning 10, 52-56.

Hickey, Dennis V. (1990) “New Directions in China’s Arms for Export Policy: An Analysis of China’s Military Ties with Iran,” Asian Affairs: An American Review, 17:4, 15-29.

Huwaidin, Mohamed Bin (2002) China's Relations with Arabia and the Gulf, 1949–1999. New York: Routledge.

Huo, Hwei-ling (1992) “Patterns of Behavior in China’s Foreign Policy, the Gulf Crisis and Beyond,” Asian Survey 32:3, 263-76.

Hsu, King-yi (1980) “Communist China’s Diplomacy in the Middle East,” Issues & Studies (Taipei) 16:3, 70-93.

Ismael, Tareq (1974) “The People’s Republic of China and the Middle East,” in Tareq Ismael (Ed.) The Middle East in World Politics: A Study in Contemporary International Relations (pp. 138-161). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Israeli, Raphael (1989) “The People’s Republic of China and the PLO: From Honeymoon to Conjugal Relations,” in Augustus R. Norton & Martin H. Greenberg (Eds.) The International Relations of the Palestine Liberation Organization (pp. 138-165). Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

__________ (1968) “Sino-Arab Relations,” Wiener Library Bulletin (London) 22, 13-18.

Ivry, Isaac (1971) “Can Israeli-Chinese Relations Improve?” American Zionist, 62:2, 35-38.

Jencks, Harlan W. (1992) “Chinese Evaluations of ‘Desert Storm’: Implications for the PRC Security,” Journal of East Asian Affairs (Seoul) 6:2, 447-77.

Jiang, Chen (1993) Idealism to Pragmatism: An Analysis of China’s Policies Toward the Middle East (Occasional paper 93:5). Milwaukee, WI: Center for International Studies, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and Marquette University.

Katz, Ze’ev (1967) “China’s Role in the Middle East,” Asian Analyst, July, 10-12.

__________ (1964) “The Sino-Soviet Conflict and the Arabs,” New Outlook (Tel Aviv) 7:4, 35-37.

Kerr, Malcolm (1965) “The Middle East and China: The Scope and Limits of Convergent Interests,” in A.M. Halpern (Ed.) Policies toward China: Views from Six Continents (pp. 437-456). New York: McGraw–Hill.

Khalili, Joseph E. (1970) “Communist China and the United Arab Republic,” Asian Survey 10:4, 308-319.

__________ (1970) Communist China’s Interactions with the Arab Nationalists since the Bandung Conference. New York: Exposition Press.

__________ (1968) “Sino-Arab Relations,” Asian Survey 8:8, 678-690.

Klein, Sydney (1967) “China’s Trade and Aid Relations with Africa and the Middle East 1951-1966,” China Mainland Review 2, 357-368.

Kochan, Ran (1970) Israel’s Relations with Asian States East of Iran 1948-1967.  Ph.D. diss., University of London.

Kumar, Bharat (1982) “China’s Policy Towards the Arab-Israeli Conflict” China Report (New Delhi) 18:5, 17-24.

Kumaraswamy, P.R. (Ed.) (1999) China and the Middle East: The Quest for Influence. London: SAGE.

__________ (1999) “China and Israel: Normalization and After” in P.R. Kumaraswamy (Ed.) China and the Middle East: The Quest for Influence. London: SAGE.

__________ (1999) “South Asia and People’s Republic of China-Israeli Diplomatic Relations,” in Jonathan Goldstein (Ed.) China and Israel, 1948-1998: A Fifty Year Retrospective (131-152). New York: Praeger.

__________ (1996) “Israel, China and the United States: The Patriot Controversy,” Israel Affairs (London) 3:2, 12-33.

__________ (1995) “Israel-China Military Relations: India’s Red Lines,” Strategic Analysis (New Delhi) 18:6, 781-792.

__________ (1994) “The Star and the Dragon: An Overview of Israel-PRC Military Relations,” Issues and Studies (Taipei) 30:4, 36-55.

Laytner, Anson (1989) “China’s Israel Policy Reviewed,” Middle East Review (New York) 21:4, 54-60.

Lee, Christopher D. (1971) “Soviet and Chinese Interest in Southern Arabia,” Mizan 13:1, 35-47.

Lee Dengker (1994) “Peking’s Middle East Policy in the Post-Cold War Era,” Issues and Studies (Taipei), 30:8, 69-89.

Li Zhu (1984) “A Brief Introduction to Middle Eastern Studies in China,” British Society for Middle Eastern Studies: Bulletin 11:2, 172-175.

Loh, Anthony A. (1999) “The Hegemonic Motif: The People’s Republic of China and the Middle East: 1949-1998,” in Jonathan Goldstein (Ed.) China and Israel, 1948-1998: A Fifty Year Retrospective (65-82). New York: Praeger.

Makar, Sizostris Hanna (1985) “The People’s Republic of China’s Policy Towards the Arab World in the 1970s.” Ph.D. diss., New York University.

Malik, Jag Mohan (1991) “Peking’s Response to the Gulf Crisis,” Issues and Studies (Taipei) 27:9, Sep., 107-28.

Manning, Robert (2000) “The Asian Energy Predicament,” Survival, 42:3, 73-88.

Mao Yufeng (2011) “A Muslim Vision for the Chinese Nation: Chinese Pilgrimage Missions to Mecca During World War II,” Journal of Asian Studies, 373-395.

Ma’oz, Moshe (1975) “Soviet and Chinese Influence on the Palestinian Guerilla Movement,” in Alvin Z. Rubinstein (Ed.) Soviet and Chinese Influence in the Third World (pp. 109-130). New York: Praeger.

Masannat, George (1966) “Sino-Arab Relations,” Asian Survey (Berkeley, CA) 6:4, 216-226.

Mathew, Gervase (1956) “Chinese Porcelain in East Africa and on the Coast of South Arabia,” Oriental Art 2:2, 50-55.

McCormick, Samuel D. (1986) “China’s Security Involvement in Southwest Asia,” Air University Review 37:2, 31-41.

Medzini, Meron (1979) “Israel and China: A Missed Opportunity?” in Robert Wistrich (Ed.) The Left Against Zion: Communism, Israel and the Middle East (87-105). London: Vallentine Mitchell.

__________ (1976) “Reflections on Israel’s Asian Policy,” in Michael Curtis & Susan Gitelson (Eds.) Israel and the Third World (pp. 200-211). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.

__________ (1971) “Peiping and the Middle East: Ideology vs. Expediency,” Issues and Studies (Taipei) 7:11, 40-52.

__________ (1963) “Chinese Penetration in the Middle East,” New Outlook (Tel Aviv) 6:9, 16-28.

Melman, Yossi & Ruth Sinai (1987) “Israeli-Chinese Relations and Their Future Prospects: From Shadow to Sunlight” Asian Survey (Berkeley, CA) 27:4, 395-407.

Nahumi, Mordechai (1966) “China and Israel,” New Outlook (Tel Aviv) 9:6, 40-48.

Nasser-Eddine, Mon’im (1972) Arab-Chinese Relations (With Special Emphasis on Egyptian-Chinese Relations) 1950-1971. Beirut: Arab Institute for Research and Publishing.

Neuhauser, Charles (1968) Third World Politics: China and the Afro-Asian People’s Solidarity Organization, 1957-1967. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center.

Omidvarnia, Mohammad Javad (1989) China and the Middle East. Tehran: The Institute for Political and International Studies.

Pan Guang (1999) China and Israel: 50 Years of Bilateral Relations: 1948-1998. Report for the American Jewish Committee.

__________ (1997) “China’s Success in the Middle East,” Middle East Quarterly 4:4. http://www.meforum.org/article/373.

__________ (1992) “The Development of Jewish and Israel Studies in China,” Harry S. Truman Research Institute, Occasional Papers 2. Jerusalem: Hebrew University.

Parker, M. (1993) “Saudi-China: Chinese Trade Takes Off,” The Middle East, Oct.

Perera, Judith (1976) “Chinese-Arab Relations: No Change Expected,” The Middle East 25, Nov. 10-13.

al-Rayyis, Riyad Najib & Dunia Nahas (Eds.) (1973) The Dragon and the Bear: Communist Involvement in the Middle East. Beirut: an-Nahar Press Services SARC.

Reich, Bernard & Cheryl Cutler (1987) “The People’s Republic of China,” in Bernard Reich (Ed.) The Powers in the Middle East: The Ultimate Strategic Arena (pp. 271-280). New York: Praeger.

__________ & Alexander Huang (1989) China’s Arms Sales to the Middle East: The Case of Saudi Arabia (Research Report #3). London: Institute of Jewish Affairs.

Reynhold, Jonathan (1996) “China’s Cautious New Pragmatism in the Middle East,” Survival 38:3, 96-109.

Rhee, T. (1970) “The Sino-Soviet Conflict and the Middle East,” New Outlook 13:7, 20-24.

Riddell, Peter & Eyal Ben-Ari (1991) “West Asia Looks East: Asian Studies in Israel” Asian Studies Review (Australia) 14:3, 113-116.

Roucek, Joseph (1970) “Communist China’s Penetration of the Middle East,” Ukrainian Quarterly 26, 149-63.

Rubin, Barry (1999) “China's Middle East Strategy.” Middle East Review of International Affairs, 3:1. http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/1999/issue1/jv3n1a4.html.

Rubinstein, Alvin (Ed.) (1975) Soviet and Chinese Influence in the Third World. New York: Praeger.

Saca, Mansur Khalil (1961) Arab Reaction to Commonest China and Communist Attitudes Towards the Arabs. Master’s thesis, University of California, Berkeley.

Sam’o, Elias (1972) “The Arab States and China's UN Representation,” Middle East Forum, 48:2, 43-54.

Segal, Gerald (1987) “China and Israel: Pragmatic Politics” SAIS Review (Washington D.C.) 7:2, 195-210.

__________ (1985) “China and the Middle East in 1983” in Colin Legum’s (Ed.) Middle East Contemporary Survey, 1983-1984 (pp. 96-101). New York: Holmes & Meier.

_________ (1984) “China and the Middle East in 1982” in Colin Legum (Ed.) Middle East Contemporary Survey, 1982-1983 (pp. 79-83). New York: Holmes & Meier.

__________ (1981) “Israel Arms for China: Wishful Thinking?” Soviet Jewry Affairs 11:2, 23-37.

Shai, Aron (1999) “Israeli Communist Party’s Policy toward the People’s Republic of China,” in Jonathan Goldstein (Ed.) China and Israel 1948-1998: A Fifty Year Retrospective (83-94) New York: Praeger.

Shichor, Yitzhak (2000) “Mountains Out of Molehills: Arms Transfers in Sino-Middle Eastern Relations,” Middle East Review of International Affairs Journal, 4:3. http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2000/issue3/jv4n3a6.html.

__________ (1999) “The Chinese Factor in the Middle East Security Equation: An Israeli Perspective,” in Jonathan Goldstein (Ed.) China and Israel, 1948-1998: A Fifty Year Retrospective (pp. 153-178). New York: Praeger.

__________ (1998) “Israel’s Military Transfers to China and Taiwan,” Survival 40:1, 68-91.

__________ (1998) “China’s Economic Relations with the Middle East: New Dimensions,” China Report 34:3, 419-439.

__________ (1994) “Hide-and-Seek: Sino-Israeli Relations in Perspective,” Israel Affairs 1:2, 16-35.

__________ (1994) “Separatism: Sino-Muslim Conflict in Xinjiang,” Pacifica Review 6:2, 71-82.

__________ (1992) “China and the Middle East since Tiananmen,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 519, Jan., 86-100.

__________ (1991) A Multiple Hit: China’s Missiles Sale to Saudi Arabia (SCPS Papers No. 5). Kaohsiung, Taiwan: Sun Yatsen Center for Policy Studies, National Sun Yatsen University.

__________ (1991) “China and the Gulf Crisis: Escape from Predicaments,” Problems of Communism, 40:6, 80-90.

__________ (1989) East Wind Over Arabia: Origins and Implications of the Sino-Saudi Missile Deal (China Research Monographs No. 35). Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, Berkeley.

__________ (1991) “China and the Role of the United Nations in the Middle East: Revised Policy,” Asian Survey 31:3, 255-269.

__________ (1988) “Unfolded Arms: Beijing’s Recent Military Sales Offensive,” Pacific Review 1:3.

__________ (1987) Small Cracks in the Great Wall: The Prospects of Sino-Israeli Relations (Research Report No. 5). London: Institute of Jewish Affairs.

__________ (1987) “Long Delicate Process: A Survey of Sino-Israeli Relations,” Spectrum, Oct., 4-5.

__________ (1984) “The Middle East,” in Gerald Segal & William T. Tow (Eds.), Chinese Defense Policy (pp. 263-278). London: Macmillan.

__________ (1984) “The Role of Islam in China’s Middle Eastern Policy,” in R. Israel & A. John (Eds.) Islam in Asia: Southeast and East Asia. Jerusalem: Magnes.

__________ (1982) “In Search of Alternatives: China’s Middle East Policy after Sadat,” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 8, 101-110.

__________ (1981) “Early Chinese Attitudes towards the Arab-Israeli Conflict,” Asian and African Studies 15:3, 343-361.

__________ (1981) “‘Just Stand’ and ‘Just Struggle’: China and the Peace Process in the Middle East,” The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 5, Jan., 39-52.

__________ (1979) The Middle East in China’s Foreign Policy 1949-1977. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

__________ (1977) “The Palestinians in China’s Foreign Policy,” in Chün-tu Hsüeh (Ed.), Dimensions of China’s Foreign Relations (pp. 156-190). New York: Praeger.

__________ & Reuven Merhav (1999) “The Hong Kong Connection in Sino Israeli Relations,” in Jonathan Goldstein (Ed.) China and Israel, 1948-1998: A Fifty Year Retrospective (95-106). New York: Praeger.

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[1] The Middle East or West Asia, for the purpose of this bibliography, includes the following sixteen countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Palestinian Territories, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, UAE, & Yemen.