Surging poppy cultivation in Afghanistan, besides having boosted Iran’s significance as a drug transit state, has fueled Iranian drug abuse and addiction. In the words of Roberto Arbitrio, the head of the UNODC’s Tehran office, "Iran is the frontline of the war against drugs." But holding the line has proven exceedingly difficult and costly for Iran. To address this problem, Iranian officials have put in place aggressive law enforcement measures as well as progressive harm reduction interventions. Nevertheless, opiates smuggling persists, while abuse and addiction are rampant.