During nearly a decade of grinding civil war in Yemen, nonstate armed groups and hybrid actors have proliferated on all sides of the conflict. Members of some armed groups have committed violations against civilians, including arbitrary detentions, forced disappearances, torture, land grabbing, extortion, and gender-based violence.

With the war in Yemen so fragmented, curbing these abuses can seem like an impossible task—there’s no central command, and armed groups can be unpredictable. Their command structures are highly variable, and they often don’t respond to traditional peacebuilding efforts, which focus on the state.

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