American higher education has been present in the region since 1866, when the American University of Beirut set the precedent for successful localization by planting roots and adapting to local society. Today, Arab governments themselves often direct and fund the cross-cultural educational export process, with far-reaching economic and social goals. For example, Qatar's U.S. branch campuses are an integral part of its broad education reform strategy designed to transform the country into a knowledge producing society. The UAE, in contrast, has adopted a business-model view of U.S. higher education. No matter what the stated goals, a historical viewpoint suggests that the results will be unpredictable, especially with regard to inevitable clashes of cultures and values over issues such as academic freedom and the role of women.